Edmonton, Canada
Edmonton, Canada

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Background Washing of red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) is required for potassium-sensitive transfusion recipients, including neonates in need of large-volume transfusions. When open, nonsterile washing systems are used, postwash outdate time is limited to 24 hours, often leading to problems providing the component to the patient before expiry. Study Design and Methods A closed, automated cell processor, the ACP 215 from Haemonetics Corporation, was used to wash RCCs and determine optimal pre- and postwash storage times. Two postwash storage solutions, additive solution (AS)-3 and saline-adenine-glucose- mannitol (SAGM), were compared. The in vitro quality of leukoreduced RCCs, prepared from citrate-phosphate-dextrose-anticoagulated whole blood, was determined postwash and compared to existing guidelines for RCC quality (hemoglobin content, hematocrit, and hemolysis) and predetermined criteria for ATP and supernatant potassium levels. A criterion for visual hemolysis was also applied. Results The prewash storage time, postwash storage time, and the postwash resuspension solution all contributed to RCC quality postwash. Levels of hemolysis were greater when washed RCCs were resuspended in SAGM (p = 0.01), while AS-3 proved worse at maintaining ATP levels postwash (p < 0.01). Immediately postwash, all units had supernatant K+ levels below the detection limit of the instrument (<1 mmol/L), but these increased to above acceptable levels within 14 days. Conclusion Based on all acceptance criteria, a maximum 14-day prewash storage period and 7-day postwash storage period in SAGM preservative was found to be optimal. The longer outdate time postwashing should help lessen challenges in providing components to patients before expiry. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.


Purvis S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Gion T.,Quality and Safety | Kennedy G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Rees S.,Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nursing Care Quality | Year: 2014

An interdisciplinary clinical improvement workgroup was formed at this academic medical center with the goal of reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). In 2011, the CAUTI rate was noted to be 4.7 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days. Rounding by 2 lead clinical nurse specialists revealed deficiencies in current practice, which were addressed with multifaceted strategies, including evidence-based indwelling urinary catheter and bladder management protocols, education of staff, reporting of data, and utilization of an icon in the electronic health record (EHR). After the implementation of these strategies, the CAUTI rate decreased and was noted to be 2.4 in February 2013. In addition to this, there was a downward trend line for catheter days. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Jung Y.J.,Agency for Defense Development | Jeong S.-P.,BNU HKBU United International College | Shin M.S.,Konkuk University | Choi H.,Development
International Journal of Control and Automation | Year: 2014

An environmental monitoring application is designed to monitor and track various kinds of environmental phenomena such as water pollution and global warming. By collecting detected sensor data from the sensors installed at a target place, a monitoring system analyzes and predicts an environmental change. For smoothly answering a user query, a data abstraction model is designed to rapidly process an amount of sensor data by employing data filtering, data aggregation, and data summarization. In order to dynamically represent the different layer of sensor data in a region, we design FLSA (Flexible Layered Sensor Data Abstraction), which supports a flexible layer of SGSA (Slope Grid for Sensor Data Abstraction). When the sensor data is transmitted to a server, FLSA make some clusters to shows several layer of sensor data depending on sensor data gradient. Each cell of FLSA hasa set of SGSA to represent each sensor data layer in the cell. This layered SGSA of FLSA is useful to represent a distributed sensor data in a cell. When an abstraction model is used to environmental monitoring, there is a trade-off between faster data processing anddata representation. FLSA focuses on data representation to show detailed condition of a target place. © 2014 SERSC.


Zhang Q.,Second Affiliated Hospital | Wei J.,Second Affiliated Hospital | Xu M.,Second Affiliated Hospital | Zhang X.,Second Affiliated Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology | Year: 2011

Objectives: We sought to identify the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in urban Chinese children in Xi'an, China. Methods: Five kindergartens and 3 primary schools were randomly selected in the urban area of Xi'an. Screening otoscopic and tympanometric examinations were performed on 2,902 children (1,491 boys and 1,411 girls) 2 to 8 years of age. Children with an abnormal tympanogram and simultaneous otomicroscopic signs of effusion were given a diagnosis of OME. Results: The overall prevalence of OME was 4.3%. By age group, the prevalence was 14.0% in 2-year-olds, 8.3% in 3-year-olds, 5.0% in 4-year-olds, 4.9% in 5-year-olds, 2.8% in 6-year-olds, 1.7% in 7-year-olds, and 3.2% in 8-year-olds. The prevalence rate for OME was 4.7% for boys versus 3.9% for girls, and 3.0% in the right ear versus 2.7% in the left, showing no statistically significant difference between genders or between ear sides (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of OME in urban areas of Xi'an is not high in comparison with that of the same age group in surrounding areas. © 2011 Annals Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Roby H.,Development
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2010

Transport policy in the UK now emphasises managing travel demand, with the generators of travel expected to play a role. Workplace travel plans are part of this, with a cohort running within organisations since the early 2000s. Concentrating on the private sector, this article presents the results of an employer survey of 25 organisations, showing how the motivations for travel plans have changed over time, and what they are anticipated to be in the future. An important finding has been to identify factors that have led to a travel plan progressing from a reactive (e.g. a planning consent), to a proactive state, whereby the travel plan starts to deliver business objectives, becoming organisationally embedded. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Esfandiary R.,MedImmune | Parupudi A.,MedImmune | Casas-Finet J.,Development | Gadre D.,MedImmune | Sathish H.,MedImmune
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Reversible self-association of protein therapeutics, the phenomenon of formation of native reversible oligomeric species as a result of noncovalent intermolecular interactions, can add additional manufacturing, stability, delivery, and safety complexities in biopharmaceutical development. Its early detection, characterization, and mitigation can therefore contribute to the success of drug development. A variety of structural and environmental factors can contribute to the modulation of self-association with mechanisms still elusive in some cases due to the inherent structural complexity of proteins. By combining the capabilities of dynamic and static light scattering techniques, the modulatory effects of a variety of solution conditions on a model IgG1's (mAbA) intermolecular interactions have been utilized to derive mechanism of its self-association at relatively low-protein concentration. The analysis of the effect of pH, buffer type, Hofmeister salts, and aromatic amino acids utilizing light scattering supported a combined role of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions in mAbA self-association. Fitting of the data into the equilibrium models obtained from the multiangle static light scattering provided the enthalpic and entropic contributions of self-association, highlighting the more dominant effect of electrostatic interactions. In addition, studies of the Fab and Fc fragments of mAbA suggested the key role of the former in observed self-association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.


Sweeny D.J.,Development | Li W.,Development | Grossbard E.,Development | Lau D.T.W.,Development
Xenobiotica | Year: 2010

The spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor R406 is orally administered as the prodrug R788. Following administration of R788 (12.5mg kg-1, 20 Ci μ kg-1 14C-R788) to intact and bile duct-cannulated cynomolgus monkeys, drug-related radioactivity was rapidly observed in plasma. No R788 was observed in plasma, while R406 was the major radioactive peak observed at all time points. Only low levels of metabolites were observed in plasma. The half-life for plasma radioactivity was 2.02.8h. The majority (68.9%) of drug-related radioactivity was eliminated into bile. No intact R406 was observed in excreta. Biliary and urinary metabolites consisted of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of the para-O-demethylated metabolite of R406 (R529), and a direct N-glucuronide of R406. The major metabolite in faeces from intact and bile duct-cannulated monkeys was a unique 3,5-benzene diol metabolite of R406. This metabolite was formed following the sequential O-demethylation and para-dehydroxylation of R529 by anaerobic gut bacteria. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

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