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Shepherd B.,Developing Trade Consultants Ltd. | Wilson N.L.W.,Auburn University
Food Policy | Year: 2013

This paper shows that voluntary product standards in EU food and agriculture markets can have significant trade effects. In particular for all countries and for goods that are raw or lightly processed, EU standards can often be trade-inhibiting. However, internationally harmonized EU standards-those that are equivalent to ISO norms-have much weaker trade effects, and in some cases are even trade-promoting. EU standards may have hurt developed countries more than developing countries, but this result is dependent on the sector. At a policy level, the results highlight the importance of dealing with the trade effects of voluntary standards in major markets, not just mandatory public standards. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Saslavsky D.,The World Bank | Shepherd B.,Developing Trade Consultants Ltd.
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2014

Networked trade in parts and components is more sensitive to the importer's logistics performance than is final goods trade. The difference between the two trade semi-elasticities is over 45%, which is quantitatively important. We also find that logistics performance is particularly important for trade among developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, which is where the emergence of production networks has been most pronounced. Logistics performance is also more important for South–South trade than for South–North trade. Our results suggest that developing country policymakers can support the development of international production networks by improving trade logistics performance. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Lejarraga I.,Oecd Nuclear Energy Agency | Shepherd B.,Developing Trade Consultants Ltd. | Van Tongeren F.,Oecd Nuclear Energy Agency
Frontiers of Economics and Globalization | Year: 2013

Can transparency mitigate the trade-distortive effects of nontariff measures (NTMs)? This chapter explores the trade impact associated with promoting greater transparency in NTMs, using a new database of transparency provisions in over 100 Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). The investigation surveys the incidence and scope of transparency provisions in RTAs, and econometrically assesses the trade effects of these instruments on bilateral agricultural and food trade. The findings demonstrate that transparency provisions in RTAs are associated with greater agricultural trade flows, suggesting that transparency should remain an important element of ongoing policy efforts to make NTMs less onerous for trade in agriculture. © 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

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