Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH

Göttingen, Germany

Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH

Göttingen, Germany

Time filter

Source Type

Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 4.24M | Year: 2017

Planning and mental simulation of actions and outcomes are a major cognitive trait of humans. We predict action consequences and perform goal-directed actions in proactive, forward-looking ways. By contrast, systems that lack predictive planning are reactive and dominated by reflex-like, cumbersome behaviors. Most currently existing brain-machine-interfaces (BMI) fall into this category. Plan4Act sets out to go beyond this by inferring actions from action-predicting neural activity of complex action sequences. Neurophysiology in non-human primates recently revealed that such encoding is far more widespread than previously thought. The goal of the Plan4Act project is to record and understand predictive neural activity and use it to proactively control devices in a smart house. The far-future vision behind this is to endow motor-impaired patients with the ability to plan a daily-life goal like making coffee and achieve it without having to invoke one by one every single individual action to reach this goal. To approach this complex problem, we record multi-unit action predicting activity in macaques (WP1), model this by adaptive neural networks (WP2), design therefrom an embedded (FPGA-based) controller (WP3), and interface it with a smart house (WP4) to control action sequences with a clear look-ahead property. The main outcome of this project is a system that integrates the above components at TRL4 for which we quantify improved reaction speed and robustness of this type of proactive BMI control. The understanding and use of predictive neural signals for machine control is novel and methods, algorithms, and hardware developed to translate predictive planning from neural activity to technology create the major general impact of this project. Potential translational and commercial interests will be assessed by our industrial partner, where specifically the embedded controller and its smart house interface are expected to create near-future commercial impact, too.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.9 | Award Amount: 9.24M | Year: 2011

Biomedical research depends on the availability of living non-human primates and biological material with primate origin. The need for animal research using non-human primates is therefore recognised by all governments that support internationally competitive biomedical research aimed at addressing the worlds most pressing medical challenges. While essential for biomedical research owing to their similarity to humans, non-human primates are more than other animals endowed with high sensory and cognitive abilities. This is the basis of an international consensus that the use of primates in research has to comply with the highest ethical standards and should be restricted to cases where no alternatives exist. Research with primates has to follow the 3R-concept of Refinement, Reduction and Replacement. Meeting this requirement necessitates a commitment to substantial investments into appropriate facilities, specialized equipment and extensive training of personnel, which has been realised by the establishment of the I3-project EUPRIM-Net in the 6th framework programme. The aim of EUPRIM-Net is to contribute to European science by improving the ability of its participants to provide the best services, support the best science that meets the highest ethical standards for primate-based animal research. With the funding of EUPRIM-Net II we will build on the successes of the starting phase of EUPRIM-Net to focus on the following overarching core objectives: - advancing the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement) in primate research - develop, refine and ensure best practice in primate research - extend the network in Europe to include commercial partners and extend the network to include non-European primate centres to insure a global sharing of available resources. Additionally, EUPRIM-Net places a focus on moving away from EU funding and implementing self-sustaining structures.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.6 | Award Amount: 4.55M | Year: 2013

The NEBIAS (NEurocontrolled BIdirectional Artificial upper limb and hand prosthesiS) proposal aims at developing and clinically evaluating (in selected amputees) a neuro-controlled upper limb prosthesis intuitively controlled and felt by the amputee as the natural one. This will be possible by means of a novel neural interface able to provide a stable and very selective connection with the nervous system. This goal will be achieved by combining microtechnology and material science and will allow, on one side, recording of the motor-related signals governing the actions of the amputated hand/arm for the motion control of a mechanical prosthesis, and on the other providing sensory feedback from tactile and kinesthetic sensors through neuromorphic stimulation of the adequate afferent pathway within the residual limb.\nThe NEBIAS proposal is also aimed at finding out the language intrinsically linking central nervous system with peripheral nerve signals in order to govern simple and complex hand/fingers movements. To reach this goal, a variety of techniques exploring brain and nerve functions will be assembled and integrated; this includes the analysis of electromagnetic brain and nerve signals, as well as of movement-related changes in brains blood flow/metabolism.


Schaffelhofer S.,Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH | Scherberger H.,Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH | Scherberger H.,University of Gottingen
Journal of Neural Engineering | Year: 2012

The investigation of grasping movements in cortical motor areas depends heavily on the measurement of hand kinematics. Currently used methods for small primates need either a large number of sensors or provide insufficient accuracy. Here, we present both a novel glove based on electromagnetic tracking sensors that can operate at a rate of 100 Hz and a new modeling method that allows to monitor 27 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the hand and arm using only seven sensors. A rhesus macaque was trained to wear the glove while performing precision and power grips during a delayed grasping task in the dark without noticeable hindrance. During five recording sessions all 27 joint angles and their positions could be tracked reliably. Furthermore, the field generator did not interfere with electrophysiological recordings below 1 kHz and did not affect single-cell separation. Measurements with the glove proved to be accurate during static and dynamic testing (mean absolute error below 2°and 3°, respectively). This makes the glove a suitable solution for characterizing electrophysiological signals with respect to hand grasping and in particular for brain-machine interface applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


The present invention relates to a method for diagnosing the likelihood and/or speed of AIDS progression in a mammal, comprising the analysis of at least one of the X-chromosomal SNPs from the DXS986 region, and preferably rs5968255. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for treating AIDS progression in a mammal based on said diagnosis. Other aspects include a method for screening for an anti-AIDS progression pharmaceutical compound, a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of AIDS and/or AIDS progression, and a diagnostic kit.


Patent
Northumbria University and Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH | Date: 2014-06-04

The invention relates to the novel use of gene markers in a method of predicting the risk of or diagnosing a subject to develop graft versus host reaction (GvHR) or graft versus host disease (GvHD). In other aspects the invention also relates to methods of monitoring the efficacy of treatment of GvHR or GvHD, and methods of screening a candidate substance for the treatment of GvHR or GvHD.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-RI | Phase: MSCA-IF-2015-EF | Award Amount: 171.46K | Year: 2017

We usually think that as we emerge from childhood, our brains become less plastic, making learning effortful and highly specific. Recent findings however challenge this view, suggesting that even adult perceptual learning (PL), often considered the most specific form of learning, has the potential to generalize across training conditions. This questions classical theories positing that PL changes encoding in early sensory areas, as the functional properties of these areas cannot account for generalization. Building on recent computational models, I propose instead that PL relates to decoding, that is, how information from sensory areas is communicated and read out by higher areas to make decisions, because readout weights can be more flexibly adjusted and accommodate generalization. Decoding accounts are theoretically attractive yet technically challenging to test, as they require a multiscale brain investigation, i.e., tracking PL across networks, areas, and single neurons. I will address these theoretical and technical challenges by capitalizing on a recent innovation combining noninvasive neuroimaging with electrophysiological recordings while monkeys learn a discrimination task. This approach will allow for the first time to create a comprehensive map of brain areas involved in PL in monkeys, determine the involvement of connectivity changes to PL, and unravel the computations that the neurons in these specific areas perform. This project, at the intersection of neuroscience, psychology and computational theory, will set forth the foundations for a mechanistic investigation of PL at an unprecedented level of detail, bridging multiple scales from whole-brain networks down to single neurons, and will therefore allow me to start a competitive scientific career as an independent researcher. Ultimately, this innovative framework will help us understand the building blocks of adult brain plasticity, and how to optimize rehabilitation and educational applications.


Patent
Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH | Date: 2012-02-15

The present invention provides a method for modelling a position and orientation of a hand with as small a number of sensors as possible. A first sensor is attached on a phalanx distalis of a finger. The first sensor is adapted to provide information on at least five degrees of freedom that correspond to three translations, yaw and pitch. A second sensor is placed at a fixed position relative to a dorsum or palm of the hand. The second sensor is adapted to provide information on at least six degrees of freedom that correspond to three translations, yaw, pitch and roll with respect to a point of the dorsum or palm of the hand. A position and orientation of each of the first and second sensors is detected. A first distance between said point and a metacarpal-phalangeal joint of the finger, a second distance between the metacarpal-phalangeal joint and a proximal interphalangeal joint, a third distance between the proximal interphalangeal joint and a distal interphalangeal joint, and a fourth distance between the distal interphalangeal joint and the first sensor are measured. A position and orientation of each of the three joints is calculated on the basis of the measured first to fourth distances, the detected position and orientation of the first sensor, and the detected position and orientation of the second sensor.


Patent
Northumbria University, University of Gottingen and Deutsches Primatenzentrum Gmbh | Date: 2011-12-14

The invention relates to the novel use of gene markers in a method of predicting the risk of or diagnosing a subject to develop graft versus host reaction (GvHR) or graft versus host disease (GvHD). In other aspects the invention also relates to methods of monitoring the efficacy of treatment of GvHR or GvHD, and methods of screening a candidate substance for the treatment of GvHR or GvHD.


PubMed | Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, National University of Sciences and Technology and Innsbruck Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The ability of long term non progressors to maintain very low levels of HIV/SIV and a healthy state, involves various host genetic and immunological factors. CD8+ non-cytolytic antiviral response (CNAR) most likely plays an important role in this regard. In order to gain a deeper insight into this unique phenomenon, the ability of CD8+ T cells to suppress viral replication in vitro was investigated in 16 uninfected, longitudinally in 23 SIV-infected long-term non-progressing (LTNPs), and 10 SIV-infected rhesus macaques with progressing disease. An acute infection assay utilizing CD4+ cells from MHC-mismatched monkeys to avoid cytolytic responses was employed. The study has identified CNAR as a long-term stable activity that inversely correlated with plasma viral load. The activity was also detected in CD8+ cells of uninfected macaques, which indicates that CNAR is not necessarily a virus specific response but increases after SIV-infection. Physical contact between CD4+ and CD8+ cells was mainly involved in mediating viral inhibition. Loss of this activity appeared to be due to a loss of CNAR-expressing CD8+ cells as well as a reduction of CNAR-responsive CD4+ cells. In contrast, in vitro viral replication did not differ in CD4+ cells from un-infected macaques, CNAR(+) and CNAR(-) LTNPs. A role for transitional memory cells in supporting CNAR in the macaque model of AIDS was questionable. CNAR appears to represent an important part of the immune response displayed by CD8+ T cells which might be underestimated up to now.

Loading Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH collaborators
Loading Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH collaborators