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Drewes H.,Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut
International Association of Geodesy Symposia | Year: 2012

Geodetic parameters always correspond to a reference system defined by conventions and realized by a reference frame through materialized points with given coordinates. For the coordinate estimation one has to fix the geodetic datum, i.e. the origin and directions of the coordinate axes, and the scale unit. In geosciences applications, e.g. for geodynamics and global change research, the datum has to be fixed over a very long time period in order to refer time-dependent parameters to one and the same reference frame. The paper focuses on the methodology how to fix the datum by parameters independent of the measurements and deformations of the reference frame, and to hold it over a long time span. It is shown that transformations between reference frames at different epochs are not suited to realize the datum parameters because systematic network deformations may affect it. Independent parameters are in particular the first degree and order harmonic coefficients of the gravity field for fixing the origin, and external calibration for fixing the scale. The long-term stability is achieved by the permanent fixing of the datum parameters. Regional reference frames must refer to the global datum by using epoch station coordinates as fiducial values. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012. Source


Seitz M.,Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut
International Association of Geodesy Symposia | Year: 2015

The combination of space geodetic techniques is today and becomes in future more and more important for the computation of Earth system parameters as well as for the realization of reference systems. Precision, accuracy, long-term stability and reliability of the products can be improved by the combination of different observation techniques, which provide an individual sensitivity with respect to several parameters. The estimation of geodetic parameters from observations is mostly done by least squares adjustment within a Gauß-Markov model. The combination of different techniques can be done on three different levels: on the level of observations, on the level of normal equations and on the level of parameters. The paper discusses the differences between the approaches from a theoretical point of view. The combination on observation level is the most rigorous approach since all observations are processed together ab initio, including all pre-processing steps, like e.g. outlier detection. The combination on normal equation level is an approximation of the combination on observation level. The only difference is that pre-processing steps including an editing of the observations are done techniquewise. The combination on the parameter level is more different: Technique-individual solutions are computed and the solved parameters are combined within a second least squares adjustment process. Reliable pseudo-observations (constraints) have to be applied to generate the input solutions. In order to realize the geodetic datum of the combined solution independently from the datum of the input solutions, parameters of a similarity transformation have to be set up for each input solution within the combination. Due to imperfect network geometries, the transformation parameters can absorb also nondatum effects. The multiple parameter solution of the combination process leads to a stronger dependency of the combined solution on operator decisions and on numerical aspects. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Rodriguez-Solano C.J.,TU Munich | Hugentobler U.,TU Munich | Steigenberger P.,TU Munich | Blossfeld M.,Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut | Fritsche M.,TU Dresden
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2014

Systematic errors at harmonics of the GPS draconitic year have been found in diverse GPS-derived geodetic products like the geocenter Z-component, station coordinates, Y-pole rate and orbits (i.e. orbit overlaps). The GPS draconitic year is the repeat period of the GPS constellation w.r.t. the Sun which is about 351 days. Different error sources have been proposed which could generate these spurious signals at the draconitic harmonics. In this study, we focus on one of these error sources, namely the radiation pressure orbit modeling deficiencies. For this purpose, three GPS+GLONASS solutions of 8 years (2004-2011) were computed which differ only in the solar radiation pressure (SRP) and satellite attitude models. The models employed in the solutions are: (1) the CODE (5-parameter) radiation pressure model widely used within the International GNSS Service community, (2) the adjustable box-wing model for SRP impacting GPS (and GLONASS) satellites, and (3) the adjustable box-wing model upgraded to use non-nominal yaw attitude, specially for satellites in eclipse seasons. When comparing the first solution with the third one we achieved the following in the GNSS geodetic products. Orbits: the draconitic errors in the orbit overlaps are reduced for the GPS satellites in all the harmonics on average 46, 38 and 57 % for the radial, along-track and cross-track components, while for GLONASS satellites they are mainly reduced in the cross-track component by 39 %. Geocenter Z-component: all the odd draconitic harmonics found when the CODE model is used show a very important reduction (almost disappearing with a 92 % average reduction) with the new radiation pressure models. Earth orientation parameters: the draconitic errors are reduced for the X-pole rate and especially for the Y-pole rate by 24 and 50 % respectively. Station coordinates: all the draconitic harmonics (except the 2nd harmonic in the North component) are reduced in the North, East and Height components, with average reductions of 41, 39 and 35 % respectively. This shows, that part of the draconitic errors currently found in GNSS geodetic products are definitely induced by the CODE radiation pressure orbit modeling deficiencies. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Bouman J.,Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2012

The vertical gradients of gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance can be related to horizontal first derivatives of deflection of the vertical or second derivatives of geoidal undulations. These are simplified relations of which different variations have found application in satellite altimetry with the implicit assumption that the neglected terms-using remove-restore-are sufficiently small. In this paper, the different simplified relations are rigorously connected and the neglected terms are made explicit. The main neglected terms are a curvilinear term that accounts for the difference between second derivatives in a Cartesian system and on a spherical surface, and a small circle term that stems from the difference between second derivatives on a great and small circle. The neglected terms were compared with the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) and the requirements on the GOCE gravity gradients. In addition, the signal root-mean-square (RMS) of the neglected terms and vertical gravity gradient were compared, and the effect of a remove-restore procedure was studied. These analyses show that both neglected terms have the same order of magnitude as the DOT gradient signal and may be above the GOCE requirements, and should be accounted for when combining altimetry derived and GOCE measured gradients. The signal RMS of both neglected terms is in general small when compared with the signal RMS of the vertical gravity gradient, but they may introduce gradient errors above the spherical approximation error. Remove-restore with gravity field models reduces the errors in the vertical gravity gradient, but it appears that errors above the spherical approximation error cannot be avoided at individual locations. When computing the vertical gradient of gravity anomaly from satellite altimeter data using deflections of the vertical, the small circle term is readily available and can be included. The direct computation of the vertical gradient of gravity disturbance from satellite altimeter data is more difficult than the computation of the vertical gradient of gravity anomaly because in the former case the curvilinear term is needed, which is not readily available. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Kusche J.,University of Bonn | Klemann V.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Bosch W.,Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut
Journal of Geodynamics | Year: 2012

Melting of continental ice sheets and glaciers, changes in ocean circulation pattern and in sea level, variations of surface and ground water levels and river discharge, glacial-isostatic adjustment, mantle convection and tectonics, all this causes transport and (re-) distribution of mass inside the Earth and at its surface. Equipped with precise sensor systems, gravity field and altimeter satellites observe these mass-transport processes. During 2006-2012, the German Research Association DFG had established the SPP 1257, 'Mass distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System' as a coordinated research programme to facilitate integrated analysis of these data, to improve our knowledge about several transport processes within the Earth system and to investigate their interactions. This special issue reports about the findings of the first 4. years within the programme. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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