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Zech K.M.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH | Meisel K.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH | Brosowski A.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH | Toft L.V.,DONG Energy | Muller-Langer F.,DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

Inbicon's lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology is assessed in terms of its environmental and economic performance within this article. This is done under various scenarios to identify the influence of locations, raw materials and plant setups on the results. In all scenarios the specific GHG emissions of the bioethanol production are 50% below those of the fossil reference fuel, some scenarios even reach a GHG mitigation of over 60%. In many scenarios specific production costs are reached that are in the range or below those of conventional bioethanol today. But low emissions and low costs remain contradictory targets to a great extent. However, using C5 sugars in co-fermentation to produce bioethanol and the also generated biogas as an internal heat source seems to be a good compromise and leads to both relatively low costs of 27.2 EUR GJ-1 and low emissions of 28.3 kg CO2-eq. GJ-1. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Reinelt T.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Liebetrau J.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Nelles M.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Nelles M.,University of Rostock
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV1PRV: pressure relief valve. 1 ) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4 kWhel -1 (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4 kWhel -1 (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Leite A.F.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Janke L.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH | Harms H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Richnow H.-H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Nikolausz M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2016

Background: During strategic planning of a biogas plant, the local availability of resources for start-up and operation should be taken into consideration for a cost-efficient process. Because most bioethanol/sugar industries in Brazil are located in remote areas, the use of fresh cattle manure from local farms could be a solution for the inoculation of the biogas process. This study investigated the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities and the performance of biogas reactors inoculated with manure and a mixed inoculum from different biogas reactors as for a controlled start-up until steady state. Results: Laboratory-scale biogas reactors were fed semi-continuously with sugarcane filter cake alone (mono-digestion) or together with bagasse (co-digestion). At the initial start-up, the reactors inoculated with the mixed inoculum displayed a less diverse taxonomic composition, but with higher presence of significant abundances compared to reactors inoculated with manure. However, in the final steady state, the communities of the differently inoculated reactors were very similarly characterized by predominance of the methanogenic genera Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium, the bacterial families Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes) and Synergistaceae (phylum Synergistetes). In the mono-digestion reactors, the methanogenic communities varied greater than in the co-digestion reactors independently of the inoculation strategy. Conclusion: The microbial communities involved in the biogas production from waste products of the Brazilian bioethanol/sugar industry were relatively similar and stable at the reactor's steady phase independently of the inoculum source (manure or mixed inoculum). Therefore, the locally available manure can be used as inoculum for start-up of the biogas process, since it also contains the microbial resources needed. The strong fluctuation of methanogenic communities in mono-digestion reactors indicates higher risk of process instability than in co-digestion reactors. © 2016 The Author(s).


Nie H.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Nie H.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Jacobi H.F.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Strach K.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40. °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Schmidt T.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Schmidt T.,University of Rostock | Proter J.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Scholwin F.,University of Rostock | And 2 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

In this study the anaerobic digestion of grain stillage in three different reactor systems (continuous stirred tank reactor, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, fixed bed reactor) with and without immobilization of microorganisms was investigated to evaluate the performance during increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 1 to 10g of volatile solids (VS) per liter reactor volume and day and decrease of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 40 to 6 days. No significant differences have been observed between the performances of the three examined reactor systems. The changes in OLR and HRT caused a reduction of the specific biogas production (SBP) of about 25% from about 650 to 550Lkg-1 of VS but would also diminish the necessary digester volume and investment costs of about 75% compared to the state of the art. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenz H.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Fischer P.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Schumacher B.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Adler P.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH
Waste Management | Year: 2013

Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Schmidt T.,Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011

Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 gVS L -1 day -1, the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 LN kgVS -1 and the CH4 concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 LN kgVS -1 and the CH4 concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H2S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H2S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L -1, indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L -1. The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 gVS l -1 day -1. The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H2S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality. © 2011 International Solid Waste Association.


Kroger M.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH | Muller-Langer F.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnutzige GmbH
Biofuels | Year: 2012

One of the future-generation biofuel options that has recently recieved increased attention is the production of biofuels from microalgae. Besides the use of algae oil for physicochemical biodiesel production, biochemical and thermochemical pathways are possible. Although there is still a need to research algae production systems, downstream processing (e.g., biofuel production) needs to be researched in parallel. As there are several methods to produce biofuel from algae, different possible production processes are reviewed. By investigating the different steps of each of the processes and highlighting the challenges and risks that can occur, it is possible to make a decision regarding which pathway might be feasible for algal resources in the future. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Schmidt T.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Schmidt T.,University of Rostock | Nelles M.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Nelles M.,University of Rostock | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

A trace element dosing strategy for the anaerobic digestion of wheat stillage was developed in this study. Mesophilic CSTR reactors were operated with the sulfuric substrate wheat stillage in some cases under trace element deficiency. After supplementing trace elements during the start-up, one of the elements of Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, and W were depleted in one digester while still augmenting the other elements to determine minimum requirements for each element. The depletion of Fe and Ni resulted in a rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids while Co and W seem to have a long-term effect. Based on the results it was possible to reduce the dosing of trace elements, which is positive with reference to economic and environmental aspects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Schumacher B.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Wedwitschka H.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Hofmann J.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | Denysenko V.,Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnutzige GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Pretreatment of organic material prior to anaerobic digestion is seen as an option to increase the overall efficiency of the process. An overview of physical, chemical, and biological disintegration (DT) of substrates in the biogas sector is given. The energy demands DT were surveyed. The technologies were evaluated by reference to the Technology Readiness Assessment Guide of the U.S. Department of Energy. The evaluation focuses on ligno-cellulosic substrates like straw. Data of a survey among biogas plant operators were analyzed regarding the prevalence of disintegration technology classes in Germany. Furthermore, biochemical methane potential tests were conducted in laboratory scale to determine the specific methane yields of un-/treated barley straw (thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH)). A methane potential of 228mlCH4/gVS was measured for untreated barley straw; and of 251mlCH4/gVS for TPH-straw (190°C, 30min). The reaction rates in BMP were calculated between 0.0976 and 0.1443d-1. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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