Deutsches Archaologisches Institute

Serrano, Spain

Deutsches Archaologisches Institute

Serrano, Spain
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.3. | Award Amount: 8.43M | Year: 2013

ARIADNE is a proposal to bring together and integrate the existing archaeological research data infrastructures so that researchers can use the various distributed datasets and new and powerful technologies as an integral component of the archaeological research methodology. There is now a large availability of archaeological digital datasets that altogether span different periods, domains and regions; more are continuously created as a result of the increasing use of IT. They are the accumulated outcome of the research of individuals, teams and institutions, but form a vast and fragmented corpus and their potential is constrained by difficult access and non-homogenous perspectives. This integrating activity will enable trans-national access of researchers to data centres, tools and guidance, and the creation of new Web-based services based on common interfaces to data repositories, availability of reference datasets and usage of innovative technologies. It will stimulate new research avenues in the field of archaeology, relying on the comparison, re-use and integration into current research of the outcomes of past and on-going field and laboratory activity. Such data are scattered amongst diverse collections, datasets, inaccessible and unpublished fieldwork reports grey literature, and in publications, the latter still being the main source of knowledge sharing. It will contribute to the creation of a new community of researchers ready to exploit the contribution of Information Technology and to incorporate it in the body of established archaeological research methodology. To achieve this result the project will use a number of integrating technologies that build on common features of the currently available datasets, and on integrating actions that will build a vibrant community of use. The overall objective outlined above will be achieved through subordinate goals, which altogether will enable the provision of advanced Integrated Infrastructure.

Lord A.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Cabral M.C.,University of Lisbon | Dambeck R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kunst M.,Deutsches Archaologisches Institute
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2011

Boreholes made to investigate the Neolithic occupation of the Rio Sizandro, western Portugal, were analysed for ostracods and associated micro-biota. Two boreholes in the middle reaches of the valley, near the village of Benfica, provide evidence of brackish estuarine conditions during the interval 6,500-6,200 cal BP of the late Neolithic followed by a decline in palaeosalinity towards freshwater conditions. Following the high-stand of eustatic sea level at about 6,500 cal BP, and possible formation of a coastal sand barrier, the influence of the rivers in the hinterland became predominant with dramatically increased erosion and sediment supply to the river valley, with consequent westward movement of marine conditions to the modern coastline. © 2011 Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2009

This ITN will continue and enhance the success of a recent RTN The Emergence of European Communities (2-2001-00366): Several PhDs have been educated and new knowledge has been unearthed concerning the economic and political foundations of intercultural interaction in Bronze Age Europe a golden epoch between 3000 and 500 BC with new patterns of social identification, specialised production, complex polities and wide-reaching interaction networks across Europe. However, new questions have been evoked: 1. How did cultural mobility impact on the social life of settlements? 2. How did the movement of people, animals, plants, things, ideas, and knowledge take place and on what scale? 3. How were European and regional identities forged through interaction? These and other questions grown out of the preceding RTN will be researched by building on a continued European network and by using a similar cross-disciplinary methodology combining archaeology, natural science and sociology. This shared platform shall create knowledge of the mobility of people and culture including the new metal bronze and insight into the forging of European and regional identities that shaped this remarkable period. The ITN is expected to change current archaeological perspectives from national traditionalism towards transnational and cross-disciplinary engagements. It consists of 7 network partners and 11 associated partners. Network partners have considerable capacities in research training and will provide supervision and facilities for the employed ESRs and ERs. They will cooperate with each other in organising workshops, training courses, and summer schools. Associated partners will provide extra supervision, field sites, data, and secondments offering specific training facilities in archaeology and front-line sciences. Field schools will take place each summer.

Champlot S.,University Paris Diderot | Berthelot C.,University Paris Diderot | Berthelot C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pruvost M.,University Paris Diderot | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i) sample contamination, (ii) laboratory surface contamination, (iii) carry-over contamination, and (iv) contamination of reagents. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves γ- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. Conclusions/Significance: There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA. © 2010 Champlot et al.

Schmidt K.,Deutsches Archaologisches Institute
Documenta Praehistorica | Year: 2010

The transition from non-food producing to farming societies first took place during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) of the Near East. It happened immediately after the end of the Pleistocene, between the 10th to the 8th millennium BC. One of the main questions that have exercised the minds of generations of archaeologists is why people first gave up a hunting and gathering way of life and start to domesticate plants and animals. In other words, why did the Neolithic Revolution take place? The new discoveries at Göbekli Tepe have turned up evidence for explanations that differ from the generally accepted wisdom on this issue.

Decaix A.,French Natural History Museum | Messager E.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies | Tengberg M.,French Natural History Museum | Neef R.,Deutsches Archaologisches Institute | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The study of several types of botanical remains from the site of Mentesh Tepe, Azerbaijan, has provided the first data on the vegetation cover and the exploitation and use of plant resources from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in this part of the Kura River Basin. Riparian woodlands constitute the main fuel source throughout the occupational sequence. However, wood was also exploited in relatively open woodlands characterised by the presence of a dozen shrub and tree species, among them oak, hornbeam, buckthorn, wayfaring-tree, maple and lime. Most seed and fruit remains correspond either to crops, such as cereals (barley, wheat) and pulses (lentil, grass pea), or to weeds and ruderal plants. The analysis of phytoliths shows that cereals were treated (de-husked) on-site. Very few fruits were found in the botanical record. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Hoflmayer F.,Deutsches Archaologisches Institute
Radiocarbon | Year: 2012

Despite many recent attempts to settle the dispute concerning the absolute date of the Minoan Santorini eruption, there are still differences between some archaeologists and scientists on the absolute dates and the reliability of radiocarbon dating. The recent publication of over 200 new 14C dates for dynastic Egypt rules out a major flaw in the historical chronology of Egypt and proves the reliability of 14C dating in the Nile Valley. Therefore, the student of Aegean archaeology and eastern Mediterranean interconnections is still confronted with an archaeologically based conventional, or "low," chronology and a 14C-backed "high" chronology. New 14C determinations from different sites of the Aegean support the high chronology for the Late Minoan (LM) IA, while recent re-evaluation of LM IB determinations are slightly higher but more or less in agreement with archaeological estimations. The present contribution reviews archaeological and scientific data for the LM IA period and argues that a reduced (~30 to 50 yr) offset between archaeological and 14C dates for the Minoan San-torini eruption may be possible, thus offering new perspectives for potential solutions for this problem. © 2012 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Kurschner H.,Free University of Berlin | Neef R.,Deutsches Archaologisches Institute
Nova Hedwigia | Year: 2012

A collection of bryophytes in the Tigray province of northern Ethiopia reveals 29 taxa (7 liverworts, 22 mosses), among them four Barbula tenuirostris, Didymodon validus, Entosthodon pulchellus, Lindbergia patentifolia new for Ethiopia. The high proportion of morphological well adapted xerothalloid Marchantiidae and xeropottiod Pottiaceae impressively demonstrate the harsh site conditions in the area for most of the year. In addition, a first phytosociological study of the epiphytic bryophyte vegetation is carried out in the dry evergreen Afromontane forest and grassland complex, which give evidence for two communities: (1) a Fabronia abyssinica community typical for the Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata fragments (lower montane belt), and (2) a Syntrichia fragilis community of the Olea-Juniperus procera woodland (upper montane belt). Both communities remain rankless at the moment, however, might be classified within the holarctic Syntrichion laevipilae alliance. First remarks on the life forms and life strategies (functional types) of the main species indicate the xeric site conditions and give insight in dispersal, habitat colonization and habitat maintenance. © 2012 J. Cramer in Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IEF | Award Amount: 139.13K | Year: 2012

This project is dedicated to a specific group of archaeological finds, such as jewellery, weapons, elaborate furniture, stone and faience vessels, seals or figurines. Such objects are extremely important for the understanding of past cultures. Due to the attractiveness of these objects and the desire for them by both rich and poor members of societies, they provide a great deal of information on the importance, intensity and direction of foreign contacts. These contacts can manifest themselves as imports and exports of objects, but can also result as the transfer of technologies, which enabled societies to imitate things locally. Additionally, thanks to their function as prestige, symbolic items or expressions of material value, they provide indicators for reconstruction of many hidden spheres of past cultures, such as social structure, customs or religion. These objects and their contexts will first be recorded and analyzed. Analysis will comprise of archaeometric chemical examination of samples and study of traces of technology of production. This will then be followed by a comparative study of the southern Aegean, Anatolia and other areas in order to find parallels for the northern Aegean. During the last stage of research, all results will be compiled and evaluated from a cultural anthropological perspective. The following problems will be the focus of this study: the significance, direction and range of international and local trade, the importance of production and trade centers, and the function of valuable goods within societies. In opposition to the southern Aegean, this area has never been undertaken for intensive research from the point of view mentioned above. This research will be conducted at the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul (host institution), as well as the German Archaeological Institute in Athens.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-SH6 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2014

Rome was connected to its Mediterranean provinces by commercial routes articulated through networks of ports acting as poly-functional nodes. Ships, people and goods moved along these, drawing the micro-regions of the Mediterranean into closer economic and commercial relationships with the City. Central to the success of these networks were the major ports through which were channelled major commercial flows moving between Rome and its maritime hub at Portus, and its Mediterranean provinces, and their relationships to lesser regional and anchorages. All of them can be described in terms of loosely configured port-systems that ensured the movement of ships and their cargoes around the Mediterranean. Some of these, particularly in the eastern Mediterranean, can be traced back to the Hellenistic or earlier periods. ROMP will address specific questions relating to the capacities of and inter-connections between a range of 30 ports in ways that will allow us to better understand their role in helping ensure the cohesion and integrity of the Roman Mediterranean during the imperial era. These concern (1) the layout of Roman ports, (2) the organization of commercial activity focused at them, (3) hierarchies of ports, and (4) pan-Mediterranean commercial and social connections between ports. In addressing them, the project will apply suites of existing techniques in archaeology, ancient history and palaeo-environmental studies to a range of ports. It is an approach that builds upon the PIs belief in the value of integrating archaeological techniques and historical approaches to the study of the past, and the interpretation of individual port sites within a broader Mediterranean context. In so doing, the project moves beyond the state of the art in port studies, and raises issues that are key to better understanding the unprecedented degree of economic, social and political convergence that was achieved by the Roman empire during the imperial era.

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