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Salonikidis P.S.,University of Gottingen | Salonikidis P.S.,Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research | Niebert M.,University of Gottingen | Niebert M.,Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Ratiometric measurements with FRET-based biosensors in living cells using a single fluorescence excitation wavelength are often affected by a significant ion sensitivity and the aggregation behavior of the FRET pair. This is an important problem for quantitative approaches. Here we report on the influence of physiological ion concentration changes on quantitative ratiometric measurements by comparing different FRET pairs for a cAMP-detecting biosensor. We exchanged the enhanced CFP/enhanced YFP FRET pair of an established Epac1-based biosensor by the fluorophores mCerulean/mCitrine. In the case of enhanced CFP/enhanced YFP, we showed that changes in proton, and (to a lesser extent) chloride ion concentrations result in incorrect ratiometric FRET signals, which may exceed the dynamic range of the biosensor. Calcium ions have no direct, but an indirect pH-driven effect by mobilizing protons. These ion dependences were greatly eliminated when mCerulean/mCitrine fluorophores were used. For such advanced FRET pairs the biosensor is less sensitive to changes in ion concentration and allows consistent cAMP concentration measurements under different physiological conditions, as occur in metabolically active cells. In addition, we verified that the described FRET pair exchange increased the dynamic range of the FRET efficiency response. The time window for stable experimental conditions was also prolonged by a faster biosensor expression rate in transfected cells and a greatly reduced tendency to aggregate, which reduces cytotoxicity. These properties were verified in functional tests in single cells co-expressing the biosensor and the 5-HT1A receptor. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Petroi D.,University of Gottingen | Petroi D.,Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research | Popova B.,University of Gottingen | Popova B.,Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The molecular hallmark is the accumulation of proteinaceous inclusions termed Lewy bodies containing misfolded and aggregated α-synuclein. The molecular mechanism of clearance of α-synuclein aggregates was addressed using the bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the model. Overexpression of wild type α-synuclein or the genetic variant A53T integrated into one genomic locus resulted in a gene copy-dependent manner in cytoplasmic proteinaceous inclusions reminiscent of the pathogenesis of the disease. In contrast, overexpression of the genetic variant A30P resulted only in transient aggregation, whereas the designer mutant A30P/A36P/A76P neither caused aggregation nor impaired yeast growth. The α-synuclein accumulation can be cleared after promoter shut-off by a combination of autophagy and vacuolar protein degradation. Whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 did not significantly inhibit aggregate clearance, treatment with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, an inhibitor of vacuolar proteases, resulted in significant reduction in clearance. Consistently, a cim3-1 yeast mutant restricted in the 19 S proteasome regulatory subunit was unaffected in clearance, whereas an Δatg1 yeast mutant deficient in autophagy showed a delayed aggregate clearance response. A cim3-1Δatg1 double mutant was still able to clear aggregates, suggesting additional cellular mechanisms for α-synuclein clearance. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms yeast cells use for clearing different species of α-synuclein and demonstrate a higher contribution of the autophagy/vacuole than the proteasome system. This contributes to the understanding of how cells can cope with toxic and/or aggregated proteins and may ultimately enable the development of novel strategies for therapeutic intervention. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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