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Sharma B.,Detroit Engineered Products Inc.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

Fast to market trends among automotive OEM's in introducing new vehicles has resulted in compressed product development time. Now it is fairly common to see CAE driven processes playing upfront role in the concept and advance stage of vehicle development thus adding pace to the Virtual Vehicle Development (VVD). In the recent decade we have also noticed acceptance of optimization driven by CAE models upfront in the virtual vehicle development process. Now a days it is not uncommon to use CAE models for optimization upfront at the advanced vehicle development stage with CRASH and NVH performance objectives. Yet another noticeable transformation happening in accelerating VVD is ability to use morphing techniques on CAE models to bring about design changes or enablers independent of CAD. Ability of morphing tools to make design changes in CAE model parametric adds significant value to the optimization process. Parametric CAE models tied to DoE or direct optimization based techniques help identify the optimal point for interdisciplinary objectives way ahead in the VVD. This paper presents one such approach of CAE driven multi disciplinary optimization as applied to full vehicle as well as to its sub systems. MeshWorks Morpher developed by Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) has been used to create interdisciplinary parametric CAE models at full vehicle and sub system levels for multi disciplinary optimization (MDO) at advanced vehicle development stage. CRASH, NVH, Aerodynamics, vehicle dynamics and Durability criteria's have contributed to objectives in various measures. Copyright © 2014 SAE International. Source


Neumann E.S.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Brink J.,American Bio Engineers | Yalamanchili K.,Detroit Engineered Products Inc. | Lee J.S.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics | Year: 2013

Intrasocket pressures can be a source of tissue trauma or discomfort to amputees. The research goal was to determine if socket-produced pressures at the patella tendon, distal tibia, popliteal, and gastrocnemius regions on the transtibial residual limb could be modeled as a function of the forces and moments occurring at the base of the socket using stepwise linear multiple regression analysis. Sagittal plane forces and moments measured by a load cell attached to the base of the socket were used as the independent variables and force sensing resistor-measured pressure was used as the dependent variable. A convenience sample of two transtibial amputees wearing solid ankle cushioned heel feet provided data for self-selected comfortable speed walking. Regression R values ranging from 0.929 to 0.996 were obtained. The models suggested that the force component is a strong predictor of pressure at the distal tibia, gastrocnemius, and popliteal regions throughout stance, whereas the moment component is a strong predictor of pressure at the patella tendon region during forefoot loading. The prosthetic foot was moved anterior and posterior 5 mm to produce load cell measurements that were slightly different from those used to fit the models. The root-mean-square error of the models for the initial alignment increased by as much as 4.6 times when data from the perturbations were used in them, indicating that the values of the regression coefficients seemed to be unique to alignments and subjects. Correlations between sagittal plane resultant force and resultant moment ranged from 0.5140 to 0.7110, indicating colinearity, which could explain the increase in root-mean-square error. Despite the lack of generality in the calibrated models, the approach could provide useful information on the relationship between intrasocket pressures and the force and moment loading at the base of the socket caused by gait, socket interface design, and prosthetic foot design. © 2012 American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists. Source


Neumann E.S.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Brink J.,American Bio Engineers | Yalamanchili K.,Detroit Engineered Products Inc. | Lee J.S.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics | Year: 2012

Using four transtibial K4-level amputees as convenience subjects and six prosthetic feet, a load cell attached rigidly between the socket and pylon was used to measure loading effects on the residual limb that resulted when the prosthetic foot was perturbed 5 mm in an anterior-posterior direction from an initial alignment. By examining the relationship between normalized sagittal plane resultant forces and moments using force-moment analysis, the kinetic rollover characteristics of the feet and alignments were analyzed and compared. Additional variables examined included the angle of the line of action of the resultant force with respect to the pylon, and the distance from the load cell at which the line of action of the resultant force crossed the heel-to-toe axis of the load cell. Comparisons of the effects of the perturbations across subjects and feet revealed similar loading patterns within subjects for perturbations of the foot but noticeably different patterns across subjects and across different feet used by the same subject. For self-selected comfortable speed level walking, each subject exhibited differences in the magnitudes of the first and second peaks of the resultant forces and moments, but not all were statistically significant. Judgments of acceptable versus unacceptable alignments were not always matched by statistically significant differences. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Sohmshetty R.,Ford Motor Company | Ramachandra R.,Ford Motor Company | Mariappasamy R.,Detroit Engineered Products Inc. | Karuppaswamy S.,Detroit Engineered Products Inc.
SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing | Year: 2011

Optimal material selection for a part becomes quite challenging with dynamically changing data from various sources. Multiple manufacturing locations with varying supplier capabilities add to the complexity. There is need to balance product attribute requirements with manufacturing feasibility, cost, sourcing, and vehicle program strategies. The sequential consideration of product attribute, manufacturing, and sourcing aspects tends to result in design churns. Ford R&A is developing a web based material recommender tool to help engineers with material selection integrating sourcing, manufacturing, and design considerations. This tool is designed to filter the list of materials for a specific part and provide a prioritized list of materials; and allow engineers to do weight and cost trade-off studies. The initial implementation of this material recommender tool employs simplified analytical calculators for evaluation of structural performance metrics of parts. The intent of the material recommender tool is to identify directionally correct material choices for individual parts to complement the assembly level design optimization using detailed finite element models. The study presented in this paper work compares the structural performance typical automotive parts simplified models with that of the detailed finite element analyses on the actual models. The study is made for various load cases considering variation of material and geometric properties. This paper compares performance trends between simple calculation and FEA based approach results for typical automotive parts; and provides a justification for using the simple calculators in the material recommender tool. © 2011 SAE International. Source

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