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Design science was introduced in 1963 by R. Buckminster Fuller who defined it as a systematic form of designing. The concept of design science was taken up in S. A. Gregory's 1966 book of the 1965 Design Methods Conference where he drew the distinction between scientific method and design method. Gregory was clear in his view that design was not a science and that design science referred to the scientific study of design. Herbert Simon in his 1968 Karl Taylor Compton lectures used and popularized these terms in his argument for the scientific study of the artificial . Over the intervening period the two terms have co-mingled to the point where design science has come to have both meanings, with the meaning of scientific study of design now predominating. Wikipedia.

Glockner-Rist A.,Design Science | Lemenager T.,University of Heidelberg | Mann K.,University of Heidelberg
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2012

Background: Previous research suggests that patients' tendencies toward either reward or relief craving are distinct continuous factorial dimensions of craving for alcohol. According to these tendencies patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might also be allocated into distinct subgroups. In personalized treatment, patients of such different subgroups might respond differently to various psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions aimed at relapse prevention. Objectives: To establish that the items of the subscale Temptation to Drink of the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE) capture two continuous dimensions of reward and relief craving, and that they allow the identification of respective discrete class factors and subgroups of patients with AUD. Methods: Nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class factor analysis (LCFA) were performed with data from 426 detoxified patients with AUD. The validity of continuous relief and reward dimensions, discrete class factors, and subtypes with different craving tendencies was established by including past drinking in positive and negative settings, gender, trait anxiety and perceived stress as covariates in the finally accepted CFA and LCFA measurement models. Results: The AASE temptation items formed two continuous relief and reward craving factors. They also associated themselves to two binary class factors, which defined four craving subgroups. Two of them (21% and 29% of patients) were characterized by high levels of either reward or relief craving tendencies. A third subgroup (31%) rated both tendencies in an equal high measure, while a fourth (18%) reported almost no craving tendencies at all. Past drinking in negative and positive settings was significantly associated with relief or reward craving tendencies. Male patients reported reward drinking more frequently than female patients. Trait anxiety was positively related only to the relief craving tendency. Unexpectedly, patients' level of perceived stress was associated with both craving tendencies. Conclusions: The AASE temptation items are suited to identify relief and reward craving dimensions and to assign patients to according subtypes. Thus, they can be used to screen for corresponding patient subgroups, possibly allowing allocation to interventions that are specifically tailored to patient's particular craving tendencies. Hence: A relatively simple psychometric measure could help in improving treatment outcomes through a personalized approach to intervention. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Espallargas N.,Design Science | Mischler S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Wear | Year: 2011

The dry wear and tribocorrosion behaviour of pulsed plasma treated and non-treated Ni-Cr alloys sliding against alumina at 15. N were investigated by using a reciprocating wear test rig equipped with an electrochemical cell. The pulsed plasma treatment produced a hardening diffusion layer of chromium nitride particles embedded in a metallic Ni-Cr matrix. The tests performed in dry conditions showed a much more severe wear for the un-treated alloy than the pulsed plasma treated. Surprisingly, the tribocorrosion behaviour was the same for the un-treated and the pulsed plasma treated alloy and it was characterized by low wear rates. Two different wear mechanisms acted depending on friction. Below a certain friction threshold, nano-wear occurred while above this threshold, fatigue wear dominated. Low friction could be achieved in tribocorrosion tests by the lubricating effect of water and, in dry conditions, by lowering the load. Fatigue wear is mainly controlled by the macroscopic mechanical material properties and loading conditions, while nano-wear depends on the tribological induced microstructural transformations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Fayne D.,Design Science
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies | Year: 2013

Virtually all biological processes rely on protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for signal propagation, therefore representing a vast array of potentially viable therapeutic intervention points. Targeting PPIs is a relatively novel drug development strategy so computational approaches towards analysing the interface between protein partners and predicting the likelihood of developing a small molecule inhibitor are still progressing. This review provides an overview of recent successful examples of computational methodologies used to predict druggable PPIs and small molecules designed to inhibit them. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen Y.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen Y.-H.,Design Science | Chang T.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2012

In this paper, a single compensation formula of adaptive conditional-probability estimator (ACPE) applied to fixed-width Booth multiplier is proposed. Based on the conditional- probability theory, the ACPE can be easily applied to large length Booth multipliers (such as 32-bit or larger) for achieving a higher accuracy performance. To consider the trade-off between accuracy and area cost, the ACPE provides varying column information to adjust the accuracy with respect to system requirements. The 16-bit ACPE Booth multiplier with ω = 3 reduces 28.9% silicon area with only 0.39 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss when compared with post-truncated (P-T) Booth multiplier. Furthermore, the ACPE Booth multipliers are applied to two-dimensional (2-D) discrete cosine transform (DCT) to evaluate the system performance. Implemented in a TSMC 0.18μm CMOS process, the DCT core with ACPE (ω = 3) can save 14.3% area cost with only 0.48 dB peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) penalty compared to P-T method. © 2011 IEEE.

Attia S.,Design Science
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2016

Regenerative design holds great promise for a new era of sustainable and positive impact architecture, sparking considerable interest among architects, building professionals and their clients. However, the translational arm of regenerative design in practice is in a relatively primitive state. Although a number of theoretical definitions and studies have been initiated, the early returns point to several inherent application problems. In this regard, the professional and scientific potential of regenerative architecture can only be fully realized by the identification of the key barriers to projects design, construction and operation. In this paper, we compare two state of the art buildings to address the critical steps in the transition from the negative impact reduction architecture to the positive impact regenerative architecture, utilizing life cycle analysis. The case studies analysis and comparison can serve as an inspiring eye opener and provide a vision for architects and building professionals in the fields of high performance buildings and regenerative architecture. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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