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Design science was introduced in 1963 by R. Buckminster Fuller who defined it as a systematic form of designing. The concept of design science was taken up in S. A. Gregory's 1966 book of the 1965 Design Methods Conference where he drew the distinction between scientific method and design method. Gregory was clear in his view that design was not a science and that design science referred to the scientific study of design. Herbert Simon in his 1968 Karl Taylor Compton lectures used and popularized these terms in his argument for the scientific study of the artificial . Over the intervening period the two terms have co-mingled to the point where design science has come to have both meanings, with the meaning of scientific study of design now predominating. Wikipedia.


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Zimmermann R.E.,Munich University of Applied Sciences | Zimmermann R.E.,Design Science
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2017

Until now, there is no explicit clarity about the question whether information, as similar to energy and mass, can be visualized as fundamental constituent of this universe or not, a question which is presently disputed. We follow here the line of argument which follows the first alternative, and give reasons for this by starting in terms of a metaphysical conception. © 2017, The Author(s).


Chang T.-Y.,Design Science
Applied System Innovation - Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied System Innovation, ICASI 2015 | Year: 2016

Modern people have gradually changed the dimension of life’s demands. Apart from the basic physiological demands, they value self-realization more. Under such changes, the micro-enterprises keep in line with the trend of self-style and dream realization to create the entrepreneurs’ blueprint of life’s dreams in a limited scale. When micro-enterprises develop in the cultural creative industry, the emotional resonance and promotion of local distinctness add to the locality’s care and promotion of micro-enterprises of cultural creative brands, besides the operational ideality. Moreover, due to the small size, most micro-enterprises have fewer than five employees, who are more efficient and flexible for strategy promotion. However, apart from the passion of the dream, rational thinking and planning are also required. Therefore, this study interviewed a total of 11 micro entrepreneurs in the cultural creative industry in the northern, central, southern, and eastern parts of Taiwan. Through a qualitative study method, it encodes and analyzes various factors of the respondents during the entrepreneurship process. In this way, we expect to understand the characteristics of the micro-entrepreneurs in the cultural creative industry and the overall dimensions of the operation, which can be taken as a reference for the micro-entrepreneurs stepping into the cultural creative industry. Using grounded encoding, the study analyzes the interview data of 11 entrepreneurs to construct the internal and external factors of micro entrepreneurship. The internal factors emphasize the conditions and ideas of the entrepreneurs, including the cultural background, attitude, and spirit. The external factors include the environmental situation and operational development. Moreover, it proposes the shaping and operation of the microcultural creative brand style, which can assist brand operators in overall thinking from internal to external dimensions. Besides, they can perform introspection and refer to directions in each stage, so as to further establish brand identity and style distinctness and finally achieve a sustainable operation of the brand. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Tang D.,Design Science | Hu C.,Sichuan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

All-electron relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations on CO oxidation catalyzed by 55-atom gold nanoclusters (Au55) have revealed that all of neutral, anionic, and cationic Au55 clusters exhibit stronger catalytic efficiency toward CO oxidation at low temperatures. High spin energy profiles and spin crossing play a noticeably important role in CO oxidation catalyzed by gold nanoclusters. Our findings provide new insight into the charge and spin-state effects of gold nanoclusters within gold nanocatalysts. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Moumen A.,St George's, University of London | Moumen A.,Design Science | Magill C.,University of Cambridge | Dry K.L.,University of Cambridge | Jackson S.P.,University of Cambridge
Cell Cycle | Year: 2013

Previous work has established that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is stabilized in an ATM-dependent manner in response to DNA damage and acts as a cofactor for p53-mediated transcription. Here, we show that in response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, hnRNP K is phosphorylated in an ATM-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicate that ATM-dependent hnRNP K phosphorylation is required for its stabilization and its function as a p53 transcriptional cofactor in response to DNA damage. These findings thereby establish hnRNP K as an ATM target and help define how ATM orchestrates p53-dependent transcriptional responses in response to genotoxic stress. Copyright © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Matsui K.,Design Science
Proceedings - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA | Year: 2016

Global warming has deconditioned people to rapid changes in temperature. Further, recently the incidence of warm nights has increased. In Japan, warm nights are often observed in the middle of August in Japan and cause loss of sleep and deconditioning. This problem is being discussed in Japan because such nights make it difficult for people to sleep well and consequently, they fall sick. In particular, people with heart disease fall sick easily and this could lead to serious medical conditions. A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HAVC) control system, which enables people to have pleasant sleep during summer nights, effectively addresses this problem. In this paper, a new HVAC control system, which focuses on providing better environmental conditions for ensuring pleasant sleep by the use of air conditioning, is presented. The system collects environmental data and calculates Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), which indicates comfort in a room, and then controls the air to maintain a normal temperature. PMV is a value used for expressing the people's comfort and is calculated using environmental and physical data. To collect the PMV value, at intervals of 1min, the proposed HAVC control system has a data collection function, the system then generates a signal to control the air conditioning. When the PMV value is over or under the comfort region, the air conditioning is turned out and this helps create a better environment for the better sleep. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed HAVC control system, the system was installed in a bedroom of a house where two people lived and an experiment was conducted for 10-days by using this system. Further, to evaluate the proposed system, sleeping condition data collected by wearable devices were utilized. A comparison of the data of 5 days when the proposed system was not used and those of 5 days when the proposed system was used revealed a 13.6% improvement in the sleeping conditions. Moreover, answers to a web-based questionnaire revealed that the participants' comfort level was higher than usual on nights when the proposed system was used. © 2016 IEEE.


Fayne D.,Design Science
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies | Year: 2013

Virtually all biological processes rely on protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for signal propagation, therefore representing a vast array of potentially viable therapeutic intervention points. Targeting PPIs is a relatively novel drug development strategy so computational approaches towards analysing the interface between protein partners and predicting the likelihood of developing a small molecule inhibitor are still progressing. This review provides an overview of recent successful examples of computational methodologies used to predict druggable PPIs and small molecules designed to inhibit them. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Espallargas N.,Design Science | Mischler S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Wear | Year: 2011

The dry wear and tribocorrosion behaviour of pulsed plasma treated and non-treated Ni-Cr alloys sliding against alumina at 15. N were investigated by using a reciprocating wear test rig equipped with an electrochemical cell. The pulsed plasma treatment produced a hardening diffusion layer of chromium nitride particles embedded in a metallic Ni-Cr matrix. The tests performed in dry conditions showed a much more severe wear for the un-treated alloy than the pulsed plasma treated. Surprisingly, the tribocorrosion behaviour was the same for the un-treated and the pulsed plasma treated alloy and it was characterized by low wear rates. Two different wear mechanisms acted depending on friction. Below a certain friction threshold, nano-wear occurred while above this threshold, fatigue wear dominated. Low friction could be achieved in tribocorrosion tests by the lubricating effect of water and, in dry conditions, by lowering the load. Fatigue wear is mainly controlled by the macroscopic mechanical material properties and loading conditions, while nano-wear depends on the tribological induced microstructural transformations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Sariyildiz E.,Design Science | Ohnishi K.,Design Science
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes the robustness and stability of disturbance observer (DOb)-based explicit force control systems. Conventional analysis methods, which only consider ideal robustness, are impractical due to the design constraints of a DOb, e.g., bandwidth limitations. This paper shows that not only the stability but also the robustness of a DOb-based explicit force control system changes by environmental impedance variations. The robustness of a DOb-based explicit force control system is clarified by deriving new sensitivity functions. Implicit and explicit environmental impedance estimation methods are considered by analyzing the dynamics of a force sensor and a reaction force observer (RFOb), respectively. It is shown that the stability and performance of an explicit force control system can be improved by using an explicit environmental impedance estimation method, i.e., an RFOb, intrinsically. However, an RFOb is more sensitive than a force sensor to external disturbances, and the stability of the explicit force control system drastically changes by the design parameters of a DOb and an RFOb. Force-sensor- and RFOb-based explicit robust force control systems are compared in terms of stability, robustness, and performance in detail. The validity of the proposals is verified by simulation and experimental results. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Espallargas N.,Design Science | Mischler S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Tribology International | Year: 2010

The tribocorrosion behaviour of overlay welded Ni-Cr 625 alloy sliding against alumina in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M HNO3 solutions under potentiostatic conditions was investigated. The passivation of the samples in the two electrolytes at different potentials (-1.5, -0.3 and +0.3 VMSE) was studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and XPS. The tribocorrosion behaviour of the alloy in sulphuric acid was similar to the behaviour of stainless steels found in other studies, with much lower wear at cathodic potential compared to passive conditions. However, the behaviour in nitric acid was highly influenced by the reduction of nitric acid at the electrode-electrolyte interface. This reaction leads to the oxidation of the alloy even at cathodic potential. This feature influenced the tribocorrosion properties of the alloy in nitric acid, the wear rate at cathodic potential being in the same range as at passive potentials. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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