Desertification Research Institute

Khartoum, Sudan

Desertification Research Institute

Khartoum, Sudan
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PubMed | Julius Kuhn Institute and Desertification Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food science & nutrition | Year: 2016

In this study, radio frequency heat treatment at varying temperatures (50, 55, and 60C) was applied to investigate its impact on the nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn. The nutritive value was measured in terms of crude protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, bioavailability of Fe and Ca, and antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents. No significant change in total and digestible protein of corn flour was observed after treatments. On the other hand, the availability of Ca and Fe was significantly increased, whereas the antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents were decreased after radio frequency heating. Moreover, protein solubility was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in treated corn than in control sample. Regarding these results, radio frequency heating at controlled temperature up to 60C might be used as postharvest method to enhance the nutritional quality of corn.

Wang Q.,Sichuan University | Abbott R.J.,University of St. Andrews | Yu Q.-S.,Desertification Research Institute | Lin K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu J.-Q.,Sichuan University
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Pleistocene climate change has had an important effect in shaping intraspecific genetic variation in many species; however, its role in driving speciation is less clear. We examined the possibility of a Pleistocene origin of the only two representatives of the genus Pugionium (Brassicaceae), Pugionium cornutum and Pugionium dolabratum, which occupy different desert habitats in northwest China. We surveyed sequence variation for internal transcribed spacer (ITS), three chloroplast (cp) DNA fragments, and eight low-copy nuclear genes among individuals sampled from 11 populations of each species across their geographic ranges. One ITS mutation distinguished the two species, whereas mutations in cpDNA and the eight low-copy nuclear gene sequences were not species-specific. Although interspecific divergence varied greatly among nuclear gene sequences, in each case divergence was estimated to have occurred within the Pleistocene when deserts expanded in northwest China. Our findings point to the importance of Pleistocene climate change, in this case an increase in aridity, as a cause of speciation in Pugionium as a result of divergence in different habitats that formed in association with the expansion of deserts in China. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

PubMed | Sudanese Atomic Energy Commission SAEC Khartoum Sudan and Desertification Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food science & nutrition | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation processing of millet grains on fungal incidence, germination, free fatty acids content, protein solubility, digestible protein, and antinutritional factors (tannin and phytic acid). The grains were exposed to gamma radiation at doses 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. Obtained results revealed that radiation of millet grains at a dose level higher than 0.5 kGy caused significant (P<0.05) reduction on the percentage of fungal incidence and the free fatty acid of the seeds, while, no significant change in the germination capacity was observed of the grains after radiation. Additionally, the radiation process caused significant (P<0.05) reduction on both tannins and phytic acid content and gradual increment on in vitro protein digestibility of the grains. On the other hand, the treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the protein solubility of the grains. Obtained results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality characteristics of millet grains, and can be used as a postharvest method for disinfestations and decontamination of millet grains.

El-Amin H.K.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research | Abuali A.I.,Desertification Research Institute
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The study was carried out during two seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09, respectively. It was conducted to determine the effect of salinity stress of four concentration levels on six wheat cultivars under green house conditions and to assess their genetic diversity by using RAPD technique. Split-plot design with four replications was used. The results showed no significant differences between salinity treatments for most of the characters under study except for plant height, number of tillers plant -1 and dry shoot weight in the first season and at plant height, number of leaves plant -1, date to maturity, number of spike and grain weight/plant in second season. There were highly significant differences among varieties under salinity treatments for plant height and the number of tillers/plant in both seasons. No significant differences for interaction between varieties and salinity stress for both seasons. Six RAPD primers (OPA01, OPA03, OPA09, OPA13, OPA14 and OPA20) revealed polymorphism among the six wheat cultivars. RAPD markers were highly efficient and showed high variation among the six cultivars studied. The closer varieties genetically in the cluster behaved similarity in their response to salinity tolerance such as Candor and Debira which were genetically closely related as shown by the dendrogram and the second sisters Pohain and Wady Alnile. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Ma S.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Ma S.,Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry | Ma S.,Desertification Research Institute | Churkina G.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2012

Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e. g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28. 6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution should be exercised when using these data. © 2011 ISB.

Wang Q.,Lanzhou University | Yu Q.-S.,Lanzhou University | Yu Q.-S.,Desertification Research Institute | Liu J.-Q.,Lanzhou University
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Considerable debate remains as to which DNA region should be used to barcode plants. Several different chloroplast (cp) DNA regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH. psbA) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed regions (ITS) have been suggested as suitable barcodes in plants. Recently, low-copy nuclear loci were also suggested to be potentially ideal barcode regions. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of these proposed DNA fragments and five additional low-copy loci (CHS, DET1, COP1, PGIC1, and RPS2; comprising both coding and non-coding regions) in barcoding closely related species. We examined the divergences within and between two species of Pugionium (Brassicaceae). We failed to find any interspecific variation from three cpDNA fragments with which to discriminate the two species. However, a single base mutation in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) could discriminate between the two species consistently. We found more variations among all individuals of the two species using each of the other five low-copy nuclear loci. However, only alleles from one locus (DET1) of the five low-copy loci related to flowering regulations was able to distinguish the sampled individuals into two species. We failed to amplify the corresponding fragments out of Brassicaceae using the designed DET1 primers. We further discussed the discrimination power of different loci due to incomplete lineage sorting, gene flow, and species-specific evolution. Our results highlight the possibility of using the nuclear ITS as a core or complementary fragment to barcode recent diverged species. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Rezig F.A.M.,Desertification Research Institute | Elhadi E.A.,Desertification Research Institute | Mubarak A.R.,University of Khartoum
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013

A five-season experiment was initiated to study the effects of the recycling of some organic residues on a soil-crop system of a guar-wheat rotation in a sandy clay loam soil located in the semi-arid tropics of Sudan. Treatments included: incorporation of crop residues alone after harvest (Cr+), with (FCr+) or without (FCr-) inorganic fertilizer, sewage sludge (SS) and humentos (H). Grain yield of wheat in FCr+ and Cr+ treatments was significantly higher than that obtained in FCr- and control plots by ∼22-62% and 116-119%, respectively. When crop residues were incorporated with inorganic fertilizer, the priming effect of crop residues on straw yield (106%) was almost double that of the priming effect of inorganic fertilizer (56%). The sustainable yield index of wheat straw dry matter for the control, crop residue, humentos, inorganic fertilizer, combined fertilizer and crop residue and sewage sludge was 28, 27, 8, 35, 21 and 38%, respectively. In general, N, P and K of straw dry matter (SDM) was in the order of FCr+ > FCr- > SS > Cr+> H > C. The findings suggest that repeated incorporation of crop residues with inorganic fertilizer and applications of SS could both sustain wheat performance in the dryland ecosystems. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Abuali A.I.,Desertification Research Institute | Abdelmula A.A.,University of Khartoum | Khalafall M.M.,National Center for Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 27 Sudanese maize genotypes. Ten primers were used, resulting in the amplification of 59 fragments, of which 53 (89.33) were polymorphic. The maximum number of fragment bands (10) were produced by the primer A-1 with 100% polymorphism, while the minimum numbers of fragments (3) were produced by the primer OPA-20. Using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method, the genetic associations obtained showed three distinct heterotic groups. The high rate of polymorphism between genotypes revealed by RAPD markers indicated that the method is efficient to analyze genetic divergence and can be used to establish consistent heterotic groups between maize genotypes. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Osman M.G.,National Center for Research | Elhadi E.A.,Desertification Research Institute | Khalafalla M.M.,National Center for Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzyl adenine (BA) alone or in different combinations, but not in hormone free-medium. The highest callusing index (5.3) was obtained on hypocotyls explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with NAA at 0.5 mg/l followed by an index of 5.2 obtained from the same explant by using 0.1 mg/l NAA in combination with BAP at 0.5 mg/l. However, for the cotyledon explants, the highest callusing index (4.7) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with NAA at either 2.0 or 3.0 mg/l. After 8 weeks of culture, organogenesis was observed only on the explants cultured on medium containing different concentrations of TDZ alone or in combination with BAP. The best shoot formation (93%) was obtained for cotyledon explant callus induced on MS medium containing TDZ in combination with BAP both at 0.5 mg/l. The highest number (6) of shoot per explant was obtained when cotyledon explant callus was sub cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l TDZ. Plain half strength of MS was found to be the best rooting medium, however, addition of IAA at 1.0 mg/l and IBA at 2.0 mg/l were found essential to induce highest number of roots (22.1 ± 0.9) and longer roots (11.0 ± 0.3 cm), respectively. This protocol would be useful to create somaclonal variation and utilize transgenic approaches for varietal improvement of tomato. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Qiao Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xu X.,Desertification Research Institute
Advances in Science and Technology of Water Resources | Year: 2014

This paper defines the concept of micro-region in sandy area, on the basis of which analyzes the formation and transformation of micro-water harvesting and its important role in arid ecological hydrology. Additionally, it presents a summary the domestic and foreign research trends on the effects of micro catchment in soil hydrology, soil development and its application in agroforestry and ecological restoration. Overall, the future research trend lies in the more accurate quantitative analysis in the process of micro zone hydrology and indicates the complete significance in sandy hydrological models in order to provide a theoretical foundation for accurate quantitative evaluation of the hydrological cycle and ecological restoration in sandy areas.

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