Desert Medicine Research Center

Jodhpur, India

Desert Medicine Research Center

Jodhpur, India

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Kumbhat S.,University of Rajasthan | Sharma K.,University of Rajasthan | Gehlot R.,University of Rajasthan | Solanki A.,Sn Medical College | Joshi V.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical applications. An SPR based immunosensor was established for label free and real time assay for the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection employing the dengue virus antigen as the sensing element. The dengue virus antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin is covalently immobilized on a gold sensor chip via activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, by amide coupling. Surface morphology of the biosensor was recorded using atomic force microscopy. Presence of dengue virus specific IgM antibodies in dengue positive sera was monitored by increase in resonance angle in direct immunoassay, whereas the principle of indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay was used to detect presence of dengue virus for early detection of the onset of dengue viral infection in clinical diagnostics. Results were compared with those obtained by MAC-ELISA. The regeneration was achieved by pepsin solution in glycin-HCl buffer (pH 2.2) and sensor surface displayed a high level of stability during repeated immunoreaction cycles. The proposed biosensor being simple, effective and based on utilization of natural antigen-antibody affinity, our study presents an encouraging scope for development of biosensors for diagnosis of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which continues to be a major health problem in the tropical and subtropical regions of world. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Singhi M.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Joshi R.,Government of Rajasthan
Studies on Ethno-Medicine | Year: 2010

A survey of the desert plants as used for the medicinal/nutritive supplementation by the desert inhabitants has been undertaken. The specific use of plants/plant parts for a specific purpose has been documented. Experimental work to analyze the constituents for the purpose it is being used, has commenced. The observations indicate that plant species such as Cenchrus biflorous, Prosopis cineraria, Calligonum polygonoids, Tribulus terrestris and Acacia nilotica etc are being used as famine foods whereas, Salvadora oleoides and Citrullus colocynthis are used for the medicinal purpose. Chemical analysis of the medicinal plants used is in progress to link perceptions of inhabitants with the scientific evidence of constituents. © Kamla-Raj 2010.


Bansal S.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Singh K.V.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sharma S.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sherwani M.R.K.,Jai Narain Vyas University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

Larvicidal potential of the extracts from different parts viz. green and red fruits, seeds, fruit without seeds, leaves and roots of Withania somnifera in different solvents was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the important disease vectors prevalent in the semi-arid region. Experiments were carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instar larvae of these mosquitoes using standard WHO technique. 24 and 48 hr LC50values along with their 95% confidence limits, regression equation, chi-square (χ 2 )/ heterogeneity of the response have been determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50values as observed for whole green fruits in water, methanol and petroleum ether were 350.9, 372.4, 576.9; 115.0, 197.1, 554.6; 154.9, 312.0, 1085.0 while corresponding values for red fruits were 473.5, 406.4, 445.2; 94.7, 94.5, 1013.0; 241.8, 535.0, 893.3 mg l-1 for An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively showing that methanol extracts were more effective against anophelines as compared to culicines when whole fruits were taken. The 24 hr LC50values as observed for seeds in acetone, methanol and petroleum ether were 188.1, 777.5, 822.5; 245.5, 769.0, 1169.0; 140.3, 822.9, 778.4 and for fruit without seeds were 80.2, 97.6, 146.6; 88.4, 404.4, 1030.0; 30.0, 44.5, 54.2 mg l-1 for the above mosquito species respectively showing that extract of fruit without seeds were most effective in petroleum ether followed by acetone and methanol extracts. However, experiments conducted with methanol extracts of leaves and roots of this plant species did not show any appreciable larvicidal activity and a 20-40% mortality was observed up to 500 mg l-1 of the extracts. Overall larvae of anophelines were found more susceptible as compared to culicines to all the extracts tested. Petroleum ether extract of fruit without seeds was found most effective against all the mosquito species showing that active ingredient might be present in this part of the plant species. The study would be of great importance while planning vector control strategy based on alternative plant derived insecticides. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises.


Bansal S.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Singh K.V.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sharma S.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sherwani M.R.K.,Jai Narain Vyas University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3 rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50 and LC 90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (x2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC 50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1, 193.0 mg l -1) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality <10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-1) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2, 128.1 and 118.8 mg l -1 for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-1 with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present only in the seeds of Tephrosia and leaves of Prosopis. In general, anophelines were found more susceptible than the culicines to the plant derived derivatives. More studies are being carried out on some other desert plants found in this arid region. The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region. © 2012 Triveni Enterprises.


Anand P.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Ramakrishnan R.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2010

Background & objectives: Outbreaks of typhoid have been reported from Maharashtra, Bangalore, West Bengal and Pondicherry in India but rarely from Rajasthan. We investigated an outbreak of typhoid in a village of Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out during May-July 2007 in Varkana village, Pali district, Rajasthan, to identify the risk factor for disease. The information on outbreak was collected and then described in time, place and person characteristics to arrive at aetiological hypotheses. Results: There were 219 cases of typhoid in village. Attack rate was 104 cases per 1000 population. Maximum attack rate of 276 cases per 1000 population was noted in persons of 10-14 yr age group. Forty three serum samples were reported positive for Widal agglutination test out of 70 tested. Drinking of water from government overhead tanks was associated with disease significantly (RR= 11.1, 95% CI= 3.7-33). Two of the three water samples from government tanks were found positive for faecal contamination. Interpretation & conclusion: The outbreak of typhoid in a village affected >200 persons of all age groups and both gender. Exposure to the drinking water from government tanks was found significantly associated with the disease. Preventive and control measures undertaken after analytical epidemiological study helped in terminating the outbreak.


Bansal S.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Singh K.V.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sharma S.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

Cleome viscosa L (Family: Capparaceae) commonly known as Tickweed or wild mustard and Tribulus terrestris L (Family: Zygophyllaceae) commonly known as Gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance. Comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of C. viscosa and fruits and leaves of T. terrestris was evaluated against 3rd or early 4th stage larvae of Anopheles Stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in different organic solvents. 24 and 48hr LC 50 and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (x2)/ heterogeneity of the response was determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24hr LC50 values as determined for seeds of C. viscosa were 144.1, 99.5 and 127.1 (methanol); 106.3,138.9 and 118.5 (acetone) and 166.4, 162.5 and 301.9 mg I' (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively showing that methanol and acetone extracts were a little bit more effective than the petroleum ether extracts. Experiments were carried out with fruits and leaves of T. terrestris with all the solvents and mosquito species. The 24hr LC 50 values, as determined for fruits of T. terrestris were 70.8,103.4 and 268.2 (methanol); 74.0,120.5 and 132.0 (acetone)and 73.8,113.5 and 137.4 mg I-1 (petroleum ether extracts) while the 24hr LC50 values for leaves were 124.3,196.8 and 246.5 (methanol); 163.4, 196.9 and 224.3 (acetone) and 135.8,176.8 and 185.9 mg I-1 (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively. The results clearly indicate that fruit extracts of T. terrestris were more effective as compared to leaves extracts in the three solvents tested. Larvae of An. Stephensiwere found more sensitive to both fruit and leaves extracts of T. terasfrisfollowed by larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Extracts from the seeds of C. viscosa were found less effective as compared to the fruit extracts of T. terrestris indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present in the fruits of this plant species. The study would be of great importance while formulating the control strategy, for vectors of malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis, based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India.


Yadav S.P.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Journal of Communicable Diseases | Year: 2011

Leprosy is a stigmatized disease in our society. Ninety-eight disabled leprosy patients were studied in areas of Pokaran CHC and Ramdeora PHC of Jaisalmer district. About ninety-five per cent (94.6%) leprosy patients were found discarded by their life partners due to disabilities. A positive relationship was found between social stigma and deformity due to disease. IEC need to be done at community level also for changing attitude and behaviour towards leprosy patients.


Angel A.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Angel B.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Joshi V.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Transovarial transmission of dengue virus has been studied in 33 districts of Rajasthan, India. Small proportion (1.09%) of breeding containers positive for the virus and their elimination has been demonstrated as a possible intervention method of disease control. Dengue virus was isolated from individual mosquitoes employing Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Out of 1,30,525 containers examined only 1432(1.09%) showed transovarially transmitted virus activity. Elimination of larvae from all the 1432 virus positive containers resulted in substantial control over prospective transmission of dengue. The study highlights rarity of transovarial transmission under natural conditions and sensitizes whether elimination of vertically infected foci could be used as a new intervention method. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Angel B.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Angel A.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Joshi V.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Background & objectives: In recent years dengue has been witnessed as an emerging public health problem. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in order to assess the knowledge, attitude, behaviour and practices (KABP) adopted by the society for its control and prevention. The changes in behaviour of community after imparting health education were also recorded to determine the effectiveness of information, education and communication (IEC) for dengue prevention and control in Jodhpur City of Rajasthan, India. Methods: A threefold study was conducted in Jodhpur City regarding KABP about dengue fever amongst the community. Out of 106 cases of dengue reported from Jodhpur City in the year 2008, only 20 households (HHs) could be located. Therefore, nine HHs around one dengue positive household were selected so as to cover the sample size of 200 HHs for eliciting information through structured recorded interview-schedule. Health education as provided through audiovisuals and group discussion etc. and resultant change in KABP was recorded again through interview of respondents from 100 households. Results: Prevention from dengue mosquito bites through mats and liquid vaporizer was known to 32 and 22% HHs respectively. Inhabitants of 87% HHs preferred to visit private health facility, 85% of HHs were not aware about the symptoms of dengue, while74% HHs stated that dengue mosquito breeds in dirty water. Awareness about source of mosquito breeding and source reduction was found to be very poor, i.e. 3 and 13% which improved to 78 and 88% respectively after undertaking IEC activities. Interpretation & conclusion: Being urban area, the economic condition and education level were somewhat similar and satisfactory in Jodhpur City. IEC resulted in significant improvement in knowledge about transmission, breeding habitats of mosquito transmitting dengue, source reduction and health treatment seeking behaviour at government facility. Through such mass awareness programmes in the communities, desired results in prevention and control of dengue transmission can be achieved. © 2016, Malaria Research Center. All rights reserved.

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