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Kumbhat S.,University of Rajasthan | Sharma K.,University of Rajasthan | Gehlot R.,University of Rajasthan | Solanki A.,SN Medical College | Joshi V.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical applications. An SPR based immunosensor was established for label free and real time assay for the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection employing the dengue virus antigen as the sensing element. The dengue virus antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin is covalently immobilized on a gold sensor chip via activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, by amide coupling. Surface morphology of the biosensor was recorded using atomic force microscopy. Presence of dengue virus specific IgM antibodies in dengue positive sera was monitored by increase in resonance angle in direct immunoassay, whereas the principle of indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay was used to detect presence of dengue virus for early detection of the onset of dengue viral infection in clinical diagnostics. Results were compared with those obtained by MAC-ELISA. The regeneration was achieved by pepsin solution in glycin-HCl buffer (pH 2.2) and sensor surface displayed a high level of stability during repeated immunoreaction cycles. The proposed biosensor being simple, effective and based on utilization of natural antigen-antibody affinity, our study presents an encouraging scope for development of biosensors for diagnosis of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which continues to be a major health problem in the tropical and subtropical regions of world. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Singhi M.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Joshi R.,Government of Rajasthan
Studies on Ethno-Medicine

A survey of the desert plants as used for the medicinal/nutritive supplementation by the desert inhabitants has been undertaken. The specific use of plants/plant parts for a specific purpose has been documented. Experimental work to analyze the constituents for the purpose it is being used, has commenced. The observations indicate that plant species such as Cenchrus biflorous, Prosopis cineraria, Calligonum polygonoids, Tribulus terrestris and Acacia nilotica etc are being used as famine foods whereas, Salvadora oleoides and Citrullus colocynthis are used for the medicinal purpose. Chemical analysis of the medicinal plants used is in progress to link perceptions of inhabitants with the scientific evidence of constituents. © Kamla-Raj 2010. Source

Yadav S.P.,Desert Medicine Research Center
Journal of Communicable Diseases

Leprosy is a stigmatized disease in our society. Ninety-eight disabled leprosy patients were studied in areas of Pokaran CHC and Ramdeora PHC of Jaisalmer district. About ninety-five per cent (94.6%) leprosy patients were found discarded by their life partners due to disabilities. A positive relationship was found between social stigma and deformity due to disease. IEC need to be done at community level also for changing attitude and behaviour towards leprosy patients. Source

Anand P.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Ramakrishnan R.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Outbreaks of typhoid have been reported from Maharashtra, Bangalore, West Bengal and Pondicherry in India but rarely from Rajasthan. We investigated an outbreak of typhoid in a village of Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out during May-July 2007 in Varkana village, Pali district, Rajasthan, to identify the risk factor for disease. The information on outbreak was collected and then described in time, place and person characteristics to arrive at aetiological hypotheses. Results: There were 219 cases of typhoid in village. Attack rate was 104 cases per 1000 population. Maximum attack rate of 276 cases per 1000 population was noted in persons of 10-14 yr age group. Forty three serum samples were reported positive for Widal agglutination test out of 70 tested. Drinking of water from government overhead tanks was associated with disease significantly (RR= 11.1, 95% CI= 3.7-33). Two of the three water samples from government tanks were found positive for faecal contamination. Interpretation & conclusion: The outbreak of typhoid in a village affected >200 persons of all age groups and both gender. Exposure to the drinking water from government tanks was found significantly associated with the disease. Preventive and control measures undertaken after analytical epidemiological study helped in terminating the outbreak. Source

Bansal S.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Singh K.V.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sharma S.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Sherwani M.R.K.,Jai Narain Vyas University
Journal of Environmental Biology

Larvicidal potential of the extracts from different parts viz. green and red fruits, seeds, fruit without seeds, leaves and roots of Withania somnifera in different solvents was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the important disease vectors prevalent in the semi-arid region. Experiments were carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instar larvae of these mosquitoes using standard WHO technique. 24 and 48 hr LC50values along with their 95% confidence limits, regression equation, chi-square (χ 2 )/ heterogeneity of the response have been determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50values as observed for whole green fruits in water, methanol and petroleum ether were 350.9, 372.4, 576.9; 115.0, 197.1, 554.6; 154.9, 312.0, 1085.0 while corresponding values for red fruits were 473.5, 406.4, 445.2; 94.7, 94.5, 1013.0; 241.8, 535.0, 893.3 mg l-1 for An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively showing that methanol extracts were more effective against anophelines as compared to culicines when whole fruits were taken. The 24 hr LC50values as observed for seeds in acetone, methanol and petroleum ether were 188.1, 777.5, 822.5; 245.5, 769.0, 1169.0; 140.3, 822.9, 778.4 and for fruit without seeds were 80.2, 97.6, 146.6; 88.4, 404.4, 1030.0; 30.0, 44.5, 54.2 mg l-1 for the above mosquito species respectively showing that extract of fruit without seeds were most effective in petroleum ether followed by acetone and methanol extracts. However, experiments conducted with methanol extracts of leaves and roots of this plant species did not show any appreciable larvicidal activity and a 20-40% mortality was observed up to 500 mg l-1 of the extracts. Overall larvae of anophelines were found more susceptible as compared to culicines to all the extracts tested. Petroleum ether extract of fruit without seeds was found most effective against all the mosquito species showing that active ingredient might be present in this part of the plant species. The study would be of great importance while planning vector control strategy based on alternative plant derived insecticides. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises. Source

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