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West Des Moines, IA, United States

Des Moines University is an osteopathic medical college located in Des Moines, in the U.S. state of Iowa. Des Moines University is the second oldest osteopathic medical school and the fifteenth largest medical school in the United States. There are 14,124 total alumni .The university is accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation and by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Wikipedia.

Peterson G.,Des Moines University
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2012

Diet, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy with metformin are appropriate initial treatments for many patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, most individuals do not maintain glycemic control with metformin alone. Addition of other oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs), including sulfonylurea, meglitinide, or thiazolidinedione, is often the next step. Newer options, including incretin-based glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, offer important benefits as monotherapies or in combination with OADs, with low risk for hypoglycemia. Reductions in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) have been reported among patients treated with GLP-1 RAs (exenatide,-0.8 to-1.1%; liraglutide,-0.8 to-1.6%), as has weight loss (exenatide,-1.6 to-3.1 kg; liraglutide,-1.6 to-3.2 kg). GLP-1 RAs also stimulate β-cell responses and have positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors often present in patients with T2DM. The most common adverse events associated with GLP-1 RAs are nausea, which diminishes over time, and hypoglycemia (when used in combination with a sulfonylurea). A large number of trials demonstrated benefits of GLP-1 RAs, suggesting they could provide suitable treatment options for patients with T2DM. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Wattleworth R.,Des Moines University
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association | Year: 2011

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been thoroughly demonstrated as a major factor in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, but HPV's role in penile cancer has not been demonstrated as convincingly. The author reviews several major investigations from the past 35 years and finds that men with certain risk factors (eg, intact foreskin, history of sexual encounters outside marriage, and history of first intercourse at a younger age) place their current female sex partners at greater risk for cervical carcinoma caused by transmission of HPV infection. A brief description of HPV prevention and treatment options is also provided.

Gillette J.C.,Iowa State University | Stevermer C.A.,Des Moines University
Gait and Posture | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of symmetric and asymmetric foot placements on joint moments during sit-to-stand movements. Three symmetric (foot-neutral, foot-back, and foot-intermediate) and three asymmetric foot placements (preferred stagger, nonpreferred stagger, and intermediate stagger) were tested. Standard (46. cm) and low (41. cm) seat heights were chosen to represent an average public seat height and a 10% lower seat height. Using inverse dynamics, maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension, hip extension, and hip abduction moments were calculated. Hip extension moments were significantly increased when using foot-neutral as compared to foot-back. Ankle plantarflexion and knee extension moments were significantly increased when a foot was placed in the posterior position as compared to the anterior position for preferred and nonpreferred stagger. Knee extension moments were significantly increased at the low seat height as compared to the standard seat height. When shifting the feet anterior or posterior for symmetric placements during sit-to-stand, the most dramatic effect was an increase in hip extension moments when the feet are shifted anteriorly. Utilizing asymmetric foot placements during sit-to-stand produced increases in ankle plantarflexion and knee extension moments for the posteriorly placed limb, with reductions in the anteriorly placed limb. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Summers N.J.,Des Moines University
Clinics in podiatric medicine and surgery | Year: 2012

The talus, a highly specialized bone with a unique anatomic design, is crucial for normal ambulation. Although uncommon, talar fractures can be potentially devastating to the patient. Although all talar fractures require appropriate diagnosis and treatment, some require surgical skill for appropriate correction. This article reviews the literature on talar fractures and their treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Goswami A.,University College London | Binder W.J.,Loyola Marymount University | Meachen J.,Des Moines University | O'Keefe F.R.,Marshall University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Variation is the raw material for natural selection, but the factors shaping variation are still poorly understood. Genetic and developmental interactions can direct variation, but there has been little synthesis of these effects with the extrinsic factors that can shape biodiversity over large scales. The study of phenotypic integration and modularity has the capacity to unify these aspects of evolutionary study by estimating genetic and developmental interactions through the quantitative analysis of morphology, allowing for combined assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic effects. Data from the fossil record in particular are central to our understanding of phenotypic integration and modularity because they provide the only information on deep-time developmental and evolutionary dynamics, including trends in trait relationships and their role in shaping organismal diversity. Here, we demonstrate the important perspective on phenotypic integration provided by the fossil record with a study of Smilodon fatalis (saber-toothed cats) and Canis dirus (dire wolves). We quantified temporal trends in size, variance, phenotypic integration, and direct developmental integration (fluctuating asymmetry) through 27,000 y of Late Pleistocene climate change. Both S. fatalis and C. dirus showed a gradual decrease in magnitude of phenotypic integration and an increase in variance and the correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and overall integration through time, suggesting that developmental integration mediated morphological response to environmental change in the later populations of these species. These results are consistent with experimental studies and represent, to our knowledge, the first deep-time validation of the importance of developmental integration in stabilizing morphological evolution through periods of environmental change. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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