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Castelnovo ne'Monti, Italy

To evaluate mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory chemokines in primary human keratinocytes (normal human epidermal keratinocytes) and repair-related processes in wound models by plant polyphenols (PPs) with antioxidant and superoxide scavenging properties (verbascoside [Vb], resveratrol [Rv], polydatin [Pd], quercetin [Qr], and rutin). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-controlled chemokines CXCL8/interleukin 8 (IL-8), CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and CXCL10/interferon gamma-produced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) were modulated by transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and by the tumor necrosis factor alpha/interferon gamma combination (T/I). EGFR phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and downstream cytoplasmic signaling pathways (extracellular regulation kinase [ERK]1/2, p38, STAT3, and PI-3K) were studied. All PPs did not affect TGF-α-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas they suppressed T/I-activated NFkappaB and constitutive and T/I-induced but not TGF-α-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Vb and Qr suppressed total EGFR phosphorylation, but they synergized with TGF-α to enhance nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR. Vb strongly inhibited TGF-α-induced p38 phosphorylation and T/I-induced NFkappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding to DNA. Vb was an effective inhibitor of T/I-stimulated chemokine synthesis, and it accelerated scratch wound healing in vitro. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Vb were confirmed in vivo in the full-thickness excision wound. Although Pd and Rv did not affect EGFR activation/translocation, they and Qr synergized with TGF-α and T/I in the induction of IL-8 transcription/synthesis while opposing enhanced MCP-1 and IP-10 transcription/synthesis connected with pharmacologically impaired EGFR functioning. PPs perturb the EGFR system in human keratinocytes, and this effect may be implicated in the regulation of inflammatory and repair-related processes in the skin. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of PPs depend on their interaction with EGFR-controlled cytoplasmic and nuclear pathways rather than on their direct redox properties. Source


Kostyuk V.A.,Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Cutaneous Pathophysiology | Kostyuk V.A.,Belarusian State University | Potapovich A.I.,Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Cutaneous Pathophysiology | Potapovich A.I.,Belarusian State University | And 12 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress due to increased epidermal levels of H2O 2 with consequent inhibition of catalase activity is generally accepted as a leading cytotoxic mechanism of melanocyte loss in vitiligo. Keratinocyte-derived cytokines are considered key factors in the maintenance of melanocyte structure and functions. We hypothesized that abnormal redox control may lead to impaired cytokine production by keratinocytes, thus causing noncytotoxic defects in melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis. We found significantly suppressed mRNA and protein expression of glutathione-S- transferase (GST) M1 isoform, and higher-than-normal levels of both 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein adducts and H2O2 in the cultures of keratinocytes derived from unaffected and affected skin of vitiligo patients, and in their co-cultures with allogeneic melanocytes. GST and catalase activities, as well as glutathione levels, were dramatically low in erythrocytes, whilst HNE-protein adducts were high in the plasma of vitiligo patients. The broad spectrum of major cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors was dysregulated in both blood plasma and cultured keratinocytes of vitiligo patients, when compared to normal subjects. Exogenous HNE added to normal keratinocytes induced a vitiligo-like cytokine pattern, and H2O 2 overproduction accompanied by adaptive upregulation of catalase and GSTM1 genes, and transient inhibition of Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Based on these results, we suggest a novel GST-HNE-H2O2-based mechanism of dysregulation of cytokine-mediated keratinocyte-melanocyte interaction in vitiligo. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Pastore S.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | Lulli D.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | Fidanza P.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | Potapovich A.I.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | And 6 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Aims: To evaluate mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory chemokines in primary human keratinocytes (normal human epidermal keratinocytes) and repair-related processes in wound models by plant polyphenols (PPs) with antioxidant and superoxide scavenging properties (verbascoside [Vb], resveratrol [Rv], polydatin [Pd], quercetin [Qr], and rutin). Results: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-controlled chemokines CXCL8/interleukin 8 (IL-8), CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and CXCL10/interferon gamma-produced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) were modulated by transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and by the tumor necrosis factor alpha/interferon gamma combination (T/I). EGFR phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and downstream cytoplasmic signaling pathways (extracellular regulation kinase [ERK]1/2, p38, STAT3, and PI-3K) were studied. All PPs did not affect TGF-α-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas they suppressed T/I-activated NFkappaB and constitutive and T/I-induced but not TGF-α-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Vb and Qr suppressed total EGFR phosphorylation, but they synergized with TGF-α to enhance nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR. Vb strongly inhibited TGF-α-induced p38 phosphorylation and T/I-induced NFkappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding to DNA. Vb was an effective inhibitor of T/I-stimulated chemokine synthesis, and it accelerated scratch wound healing in vitro. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Vb were confirmed in vivo in the full-thickness excision wound. Although Pd and Rv did not affect EGFR activation/translocation, they and Qr synergized with TGF-α and T/I in the induction of IL-8 transcription/synthesis while opposing enhanced MCP-1 and IP-10 transcription/synthesis connected with pharmacologically impaired EGFR functioning. Innovation: PPs perturb the EGFR system in human keratinocytes, and this effect may be implicated in the regulation of inflammatory and repair-related processes in the skin. Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of PPs depend on their interaction with EGFR-controlled cytoplasmic and nuclear pathways rather than on their direct redox properties. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


De Luca C.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | Kharaeva Z.,Medical University | Raskovic D.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | Pastore P.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective: Host defense and latency determinants in viral recurrent dermatologic infections are not entirely understood, as conventional protocols are inadequate to achieve fast healing and relapse prevention. Endogenously produced oxygen/nitrogen reactive species (ROS/RNS) are essential for antiviral immune defense, while their excess may aggravate skin inflammation. Here, we sought a nutritional approach capable of controlling ROS/RNS balance to accelerate recovery and inhibit recurrences of two mucocutaneous chronic DNA-virus infections. Methods: Two controlled clinical trials evaluated the feasibility of ROS/RNS-modulating nutriceutical dosages of coenzyme Q 10, RRR-α-tocopherol, selenium aspartate, and L-methionine associated with established therapies. Clinical trial 1 evaluated 68 patients with relapsing human papillomavirus skin warts treated with cryotherapy followed by 180 d of nutriceutical/placebo administration. Clinical trial 2 compared the combination of acyclovir followed by 90 d of nutriceutical administration versus acyclovir alone in patients with recurrences of herpes simplex genitalis (n = 60) or herpes zoster (n = 29). Viral DNA levels were assessed by polymer chain reaction, biomarkers of antiviral defense (peroxynitrite and IFNα/γ) and antioxidant capacity (lipophilic antioxidants and glutathione) were assayed by biochemical/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques in blood fractions. Results: In both trials, the nutriceutical induced significantly faster healing (P < 0.01-0.05) with reduced incidence of relapses (P < 0.05) as compared to control groups, which was confirmed by decreased viral load and increased antiviral cytokine and peroxynitrite plasma levels. Plasma antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.01) in the experimental versus control groups. Conclusions: Results document positive clinical outcomes of the selected nutriceutical associated with conventional protocols in the management of relapsing mucocutaneous human papillomavirus and herpes infections. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source


Pastore S.,Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology | Mariani V.,Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology | Lulli D.,Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology | Gubinelli E.,Dermatology Research Institute IDI IRCCS | And 12 more authors.
Free Radical Research | Year: 2011

Biological treatment of psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated pathology of huge social impact, has become a recent revolutionizing breakthrough in the management of the disease. Apart from anti-TNF-alpha biologics, recombinant proteins-inhibitors of the T lymphocytes-antigen presenting cells interaction, Efalizumab among them, have been successfully used in the therapy of psoriasis. Serious concern regarding safety and efficacy of biologics remains because they induce numerous adverse effects and a significant number of patients are non-responders. Up-to-now, there are no biochemical or/and immunological markers of the clinical efficacy of these drugs. This study searches for immunological and redox markers of the clinical response in the group of psoriatic patients treated with Efalizumab. Clinical response to Efalizumab was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and correlated with suppression of T-cell functions, plasma cytokines, membrane-associated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), antioxidant enzymes and markers of oxidative stress. A 12-week Efalizumab therapy did not affect abnormal plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower-than-normal content of PUFAs esterified in phospholipids of red cell membranes. It did, however, suppress T-cell-mediated functions and decrease nitrites/nitrates and malonyl dialdehyde levels independently on the clinical outcome. On contrast, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase in granulocytes were remarkably increased and catalase decreased exclusively in non-responders vs complete or partial responders. High baseline GPx in erythrocytes decreased in responders. It is concluded that clinical response to Efalizumab correlates with GPx activity in the blood cells, suggesting that high hydroperoxide levels are involved in psoriasis persistence. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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