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Korkina L.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Kostyuk V.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Kostyuk V.,Belarusian State University
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Secondary metabolites of higher plants exert numerous effects on tumorigenesis, on tumor cells in vitro, tumors in experimental animals in vivo, interact with anti-cancer drugs, thus affecting positively or negatively their efficacy, and protect normal tissues of the host organism against adverse effects of anti-cancer therapies. The industrial development of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products based on secondary plant metabolites is limited due to the following: (i) limited availability of their natural sources, (ii) concern about rare extinguishing plants, (iii) unavoidable contamination of plant extracts with environmental pollutants, (iv) seasonal variations in plant harvesting, (v) poor standardization of the final product due to variable conditions for plant growth, and (vi) difficulties of secondary metabolite extraction from the parts of grown plant. There is now steadily growing interest in the biotechnological approach to produce secondary metabolites using plant cell or plant tissue cultures. In the present review, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and their role(s) in plant physiology will be briefly discussed; the biotechnological approach to active substances production in the plant cell and plant tissue cultures will be described; examples and mechanisms of cancer preventive and anti-cancer action of some biotechnologically produced plant metabolites will be provided; and future perspectives for biotechnologically produced plant-derived substances in the combined protocols for cancer treatment will be suggested. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Korkina L.G.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Pastore S.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Dellambra E.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | De Luca C.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

As the incidence of skin tumors has been steadily growing, there is an urgent need for the preventive measures as well as the improved therapeutic approaches. In the last two decades, natural plant derived polyphenols (PPs, resveratrol, silibinin, green tea polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc.) have been drawing particular interest as emerging active substances in dermatological/ cosmeceutical compositions for the prevention, slowing, or reversion of skin tumorigenesis (chemoprevention). When chronically applied to the skin, they supposedly would not damage normal skin cells or negatively affect their functions while they would suppress tumorigenic cell transformation, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and activate tumor cell apoptosis. PPs are also reported to synergize with conventional anti-cancer therapies. The major aim of this critical review is to provide recent updates on the molecular and cellular targets for the prevention and therapy of skin tumors with a special focus on the crossroad between inflammation and carcinogenesis as the most promising approach to chemoprevention. Novel therapeutic targets as different as epidermal stem cells, cellular senescence, epigenetic enzymes involved in carcinogenesis, epidermal growth factor and aryl hydrocarbon receptors, and metabolic CYP1 subfamily enzymes are highlighted. The mechanisms of PPs interaction with these molecular and cellular targets are reviewed. The feasibility of PPs to prevent/ cure specific cutaneous toxicity connected to anti-EGFR therapy and to reduce multidrug resistance of skin tumors is also discussed. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Pastore S.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Lulli D.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Potapovich A.I.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Potapovich A.I.,Belarusian State University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2011

Background: Environmental and endogenous stresses to skin are considered causative reasons for skin cancers, premature ageing, and chronic inflammation. Screening of substances with preventive and/or curative properties is currently based on mechanistic studies of their effects towards stress-induced responses in skin cell cultures. Objective: We compared effects of plant polyphenols (PPs) on the constitutive, UVA-, LPS-, or TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory responses in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and immortalized HaCaT cells. Methods: Representatives of three classes of PPs, flavonoids, stilbenoids, and phenylpropanoids were studied. Their effects on mRNA were determined by qRT-PCR; protein expression was assayed by Western blot and bioplexed ELISA; phosphorylation of Akt1, ERK1/2, EGFR, and NFkappaB was quantified by intracellular ELISA or Western blot. Results: PPs or their combination with UVA or LPS induced strong up-regulation of stress responses in HaCaT but not in NHEK. In addition, compared to NHEK, HaCaT responded to TNF-alpha with higher synthesis of MCP-1, IP-10 and IL-8, concomitant with stronger NFkappaB activation. PPs down-regulated the chemokine release from both cell types, although with distinct effects on NFkappaB, Akt1, ERK, and EGFR activation. Conclusion: Results of pharmacological screenings obtained by using HaCaT should be cautiously considered while extending them to primary keratinocytes from human epidermis. © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source

Pastore S.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Lulli D.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Maurelli R.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | Dellambra E.,Dermatology Institute Istituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Anti-inflammatory and skin tumour preventing effects of resveratrol have been extensively studied pre-clinically and resveratrol has been proposed for clinical investigations. To provide a basis or/and limitations for topical administration to human skin, molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol effects towards normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were evaluated. NHEK were challenged by either resveratrol alone or by its combination with TNFalpha or TGFalpha, and time-dependent molecular events were monitored. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) expression and its mRNA stability, ERK1/2, p65/RelA, and EGFR phosphorylation were determined. Intracellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was measured in the membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear fractions. Specific DNA binding activity of NFκB (p65/RelA) and AP-1(c-Fos), NHEK proliferation, and molecular markers of apoptosis/cell cycle were detected. Resveratrol induced delayed, long-lasting and steadily growing IL-8 gene and protein over-expression as well as enhanced EGFR phosphorylation, both abrogated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD168393. However, resveratrol did not act as a phosphatase inhibitor. ERK phosphorylation was transiently inhibited at early time-points and activated at 6-24 h. Accordingly, c-Fos-specific DNA binding was increased by resveratrol. Cellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was shifted to membrane and nucleus while cytosolic levels were reduced concomitant with enhanced degradation. Notwithstanding high nuclear levels of EGFR/P-EGFR, spontaneous and TGFalpha-triggered cell proliferation was strongly suppressed by resveratrol mainly through cell cycle arrest. Conclusions/Significance: Resveratrol synergized with TNFα in the induction of delayed, long-lasting IL-8 expression through sustained EGFR-ERK axis activation. The time course indicates that resveratrol metabolites could be implicated. Topical administration of Resv to psoriatic patients over-expressing TNFα, IL-8 and EGFR-ERK in the skin should be cautiously considered. Since high nuclear levels of EGFR correspond to increased risk of tumorigenesis, chronic resveratrol application to the skin may be potentially dangerous. Wound healing acceleration by resveratrol could not be envisaged due to its anti-proliferative effects towards normal keratinocytes. © 2013 Pastore et al. Source

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