Dermatoepidemiology Unit

Providence, RI, United States

Dermatoepidemiology Unit

Providence, RI, United States
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Katalinic A.,University of Lübeck | Waldmann A.,University of Lübeck | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Weinstock M.A.,Rhode Island Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: From July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004, a population-based skin cancer screening project was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In total, 360,288 individuals aged ≥20 years were screened by means of a whole-body examination. In this report, the authors compare trends in melanoma mortality in Schleswig-Holstein with those in all adjacent regions, none of which had population-based skin cancer screening. Methods: Trends in melanoma mortality rates for Schleswig-Holstein and the adjacent regions (Denmark and the German federal states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Hamburg, and Lower Saxony) and in Germany excluding Schleswig-Holstein were compared. Log-linear regression was used to assess mortality trends. Results: In Schleswig-Holstein during the pre skin cancer screening period (1998-1999), the age-standardized melanoma mortality rate (World standard population) was 1.9 per 100,000 for men and 1.4 per 100,000 for women. Melanoma mortality declined by 47% to 1.0 per 100,000 men and by 49% to 0.7 per 100,000 women by 2008/2009. The annual percentage change in the most recent 10-year period (2000-2009) was -7.5% (95% confidence interval, -14.0, -0.5) for men and -7.1% (95% confidence interval, -10.5, -2.9) for women. In each of the 4 adjacent regions and in the rest of Germany, mortality rates were stable, and the decline in Schleswig-Holstein was significantly different from the changes observed in all of the other areas studied. Conclusions: The current data represent strong evidence, but not absolute proof, that the skin cancer screening program produced a reduction in melanoma mortality in Schleswig-Holstein. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.

Eisemann N.,University of Lübeck | Waldmann A.,University of Lübeck | Geller A.C.,Harvard University | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2014

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized. This analysis has two objectives: first, to provide up-to-date incidence estimates by sex, age group, histological type, and body site; and second, to study the impact of skin cancer screening. The impact of screening on NMSC incidence in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is analyzed by comparing four time periods of different screening settings (no screening (1998-2000), pilot project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany, SCREEN, 2003-2004), after SCREEN (2004-2008), and nation-wide skin cancer screening (2008-2010)) to a reference region (Saarland, Germany). Age-standardized (Europe) NMSC incidence was 119/100,000 for women and 145/100,000 for men in the most recent screening period in Schleswig-Holstein (2008-2010). During implementation of SCREEN (2003-2004), incidence increased from 81.5/100,000 to 111.5/100,000 (1998-2000) by 47% for women and 34% for men. All age groups in women were affected by the increase, but increases for men were mostly limited to the older age groups. Incidence in Saarland first increased slowly, but increased steeply with the introduction of the nation-wide skin cancer screening in 2008 (+47% for women and +40% for men, reference 2004-2008). Observed changes are most likely attributed to screening activities. © 2014 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Baibergenova A.T.,University of Toronto | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Weinstock M.A.,Rhode Island Hospital | Weinstock M.A.,Brown University
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2012

Background Glucorticosteroids (GC) are potent anti-inflammatory medications with immunosuppressive property. Few retrospective studies have reported the increased risk of development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with GC use. Objective We aimed to assess the effect of oral GC use on the risk of BCC and SCC using prospective data. Methods We analysed data from the Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention Trial, which followed up patients from 1998 to 2004. Exposure to oral GCs was defined as (1) use of any oral GCs at any point during follow-up and (2) use of GCs for a month or longer. Outcome was occurrence of new BCC or SCC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Among the 1051 study participants, 148 patients (14%) had prednisone prescription filled during study period, and 63 (6%) used prednisone for over a month. A total of 472 patients (45%) developed at least one BCC during study: 394 (44%) among non-users of prednisone and 78 (53%) among any time users. The total number of new SCC was 309 (29%): 258 (29%) among non-users of prednisone and 51 (34%) among users. Among any time prednisone users, the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.42) for BCC, and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.76-1.45) for SCC. Among those who used prednisone for 30 or more days, the HR was 1.26 (95% CI, 0.90-1.78) for BCC, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.66-1.60) for SCC. Conclusion This study does not support the existence of association between use of oral GCs and risk of BCC or SCC. © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Korgavkar K.,Brown University | Korgavkar K.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Xiong M.,Brown University | Xiong M.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | And 3 more authors.
JAMA Dermatology | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) incidence and survival have been increasing steadily for over 25 years. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure changes in CTCL incidence trends and survival rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based study. The CTCL incidence and survival data were obtained from the 9 original registries (1973-2009) and the 4 additional registries (1992-2009) of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Trend analysis was performed using the Joinpoint Regression Program provided by the NCI. Survival analysis was performed using the SeerSTAT statistical software of the NCI. The total number of cases of CTCL from 1973 to 2009 was 6230. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Diagnoses of CTCL. RESULTS: Overall CTCL incidence has stabilized since 1998 (95% CI, 1994-2002), with an annual percent change (APC) of 5.7% from 1973 to 1998 (95% CI, 4.9%-6.5%) and an APC of 0.1% from 1998 to 2009 (95% CI, -1.4% to 1.5%). Similar incidence stabilization patterns were found in subgroup analyses of race, sex, age, diagnosis, and registry. Five-year CTCL survival rates increased until 2004. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The incidence of CTCL is no longer increasing. Causes for this trend change may include real incidence stabilization, stabilization of physician detection, or artifact. Copyright 2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Dusza S.W.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Halpern A.C.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Satagopan J.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Oliveria S.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: Early childhood UV light radiation (UVR) exposures have been shown to be associated with melanoma development later in life. The objective of this study was to assess sunburn and changes in sunburn and sun behaviors during periadolescence. METHODS: A prospective, population-based study was conducted in fifthgrade children (∼10 years of age) from Framingham, Massachusetts. Surveys were administered at baseline (September-October 2004) and again 3 years later (September-October 2007). Surveys were analyzed to assess prevalence of reported sunburn and sun behaviors and to examine changes in response over the follow-up period. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 360 participants who had complete information regarding sunburn at both time points. In 2004, ∼53% of the students reported having at least 1 sunburn during the previous summer, and this proportion did not significantly change by 2007 (55%, P = .79), whereas liking a tan and spending time outside to get a tan significantly increased (P < .001). In 2004, 50% of students reported "often or always" use of sunscreen when outside for at least 6 hours in the summer; this proportion dropped to 25% at the followup evaluation (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: With at least 50% of children experiencing sunburns before age 11 and again 3 years later, targeting children in pediatric offices and community settings regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach. Because periadolescence is a time of volatility with regard to sun behaviors, learning more about children who receive sunburns versus those who avoid them is a critical research task. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Vogel R.I.,University of Minnesota | Ahmed R.L.,University of Minnesota | Nelson H.H.,University of Minnesota | Berwick M.,University of New Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014

Indoor tanning is carcinogenic to humans. Individuals report that they tan indoors before planning to be in the sun to prevent sunburns, but whether skin cancer is subsequently reduced is unknown. Using a population-based case-control study, we calculated the association between melanoma and indoor tanning after excluding exposed participants reporting indoor tanning-related burns, stratified by their number of lifetime sunburns (0, 1-2, 3-5, >5). Confounding was addressed using propensity score analysis methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. We observed increased risk of melanoma across all sunburn categories for participants who had tanned indoors without burning compared with those who never tanned indoors, including those who reported zero lifetime sunburns (odds ratio = 3.87; 95% confidence interval = 1.68 to 8.91; P =. 002). These data provide evidence that indoor tanning is a risk factor for melanoma even among persons who reported never experiencing burns from indoor tanning or outdoor sun exposure. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Landow S.M.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Landow S.M.,Brown University | Mateus A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Korgavkar K.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Teledermatology makes 3 promises: better, cheaper, and faster dermatologic care. It is "better" because, although it cannot offer as much to the patient as a traditional visit, it extends the dermatologist's reach to places and in ways not previously possible as a result of time and place limitations; it is "cheaper and faster" because it has the potential to reduce costs and increase efficiency for both patients and providers. For teledermatology to fulfill these promises, it must enable dermatologists to improve access by increasing the number of patients evaluated and treated. Increased patient access depends on maximizing a scarce resource-dermatologists' time-in part by avoiding unnecessary and time-consuming face-to-face appointments. We examined the literature to date to determine which teledermatology programs have greater or lesser success in reducing face-to-face visits. Our review highlights 4 factors that are associated with a higher number of face-to-face appointments avoided by teledermatology programs: (1) effective preselection of patients for teleconsultation, (2) high-quality photographic images, (3) dermoscopy if pigmented lesions are evaluated, and (4) effective infrastructure and culture in place to implement teleconsultation recommendations. © 2014 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.

Nunes A.P.,Brown University | Lapane K.L.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Weinstock M.A.,Brown University | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Weinstock M.A.,Rhode Island Hospital
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2011

Purpose: Observational studies have reported significant negative associations between sporadic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) while reporting null results for regular use. This pattern may be partially explained by the operational expression of NSAID exposure and analytic model assumptions. Our goals were to quantify the association between NSAIDs and KC and to explore the impact of exposure metrics and modeling assumptions on observed associations. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study by linking data from the Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention Trial and the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management database. NSAID use was categorized according to cyclooxygenase selectivity, timing of initiation, and frequency of use. Data were analyzed using time-varying and time-fixed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models [Correction made here after initial online publication]. Simulated null data were generated and analyzed to explore potential biases introduced by the models and the exposure metrics. Results: During a median follow-up time of 2years for basal cell carcinoma and 2.5years for squamous cell carcinoma, 472 occurrences of BCC and 309 occurrences of SCC were observed. Time-fixed analyses of NSAID exposure metrics produced significant negative associations, whereas time-varying analyses produced null results. Analysis of simulated null data revealed the potential for strong bias in the time-fixed analyses. Conclusions: This study did not identify a negative association between NSAIDs and KC. The disparity between the time-fixed and the time-varying analyses highlights the extent to which operational definitions of drug exposures and reliance on time-fixed methods may introduce bias. © 2011.

Pomerantz H.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Pomerantz H.,Brown University | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Weinstock M.A.,Brown University | Weinstock M.A.,Rhode Island Hospital
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Summary Background Topical tretinoin is commonly prescribed, but its frequent adverse effects are barriers to use. Predictors of resistance or susceptibility to retinoid irritation are not known. Objective To identify baseline patient characteristics associated with adverse effects of topical tretinoin. Methods This cohort study used data collected from 324 participants in the Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention trial who were randomized to apply tretinoin cream on the face and ears. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between baseline characteristics and local adverse effects. Results One hundred and ninety-seven patients (61% of those randomized to tretinoin) reported local adverse effects within 6 months. Clinical signs of severe photodamage at baseline [odds ratio (OR) 0·15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·04-0·54] and history of acne (OR 0·46, 95% CI 0·27-0·77) were associated with a decreased risk of adverse effects to tretinoin. The use of other topical medications at enrolment (OR 1·88, 95% CI 1·15-3·08) predicted an increase in adverse effects. Conclusions In this study population, the common indications of topical tretinoin treatment were associated with lower risks of adverse effects. The concurrent use of other topical medications may worsen irritation caused by tretinoin. What's already known about this topic? Topical tretinoin commonly causes cutaneous irritation and may result in noncompliance. What does this study add? This study identifies patient characteristics associated with increasing and decreasing risks of skin irritation from topical tretinoin use. This information will help clinicians tailor topical tretinoin treatment for individual patients and educate them before treatment. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

Lee K.C.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Lee K.C.,Brown University | Lew R.,Brown University | Weinstock M.A.,Dermatoepidemiology Unit | Weinstock M.A.,Brown University
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background Actinic keratoses (AKs) often serve as a primary endpoint for clinical studies. However, reliability of counting these lesions is poor, even among expert dermatologists. Objectives To investigate the reliability of counting AKs before and after a yearly consensus meeting, held annually for 4 years. Methods As part of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Keratinocyte Carcinoma Chemoprevention Trial, board-certified dermatologists convened annually for 4 years to individually count the number of actinic keratoses on three to five test subjects. The dermatologists then met as a group for a consensus discussion on what constituted an AK lesion on each subject. Afterwards, each dermatologist repeated the independent counting exercise on three to five new subjects. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze the reliability of counting AKs among the dermatologists. Results Eight dermatologists participated in this exercise for 4 consecutive years. Pre-consensus discussion ICCs over 4 years were 0·18, 0·34, 0·38, 0·75, respectively, showing sustained improvement with each consensus discussion. The greatest improvement in reliability of AK counts was shown during the first year of consensus discussions, when the ICC improved from 0·18 to 0·67. There was no improvement by the fourth year of consensus discussion, with pre- and post-consensus ICCs of 0·75 and 0·75, respectively. Conclusions Annual consensus discussions can lead to improvement in reliability of AK counts. This improvement was sustained over 4 years. By the fourth year, the discussion meeting had no effect on improvement in reliability. A consensus meeting discussion may be helpful for improving reliability in other trials. What's already known about this topic? The reliability of counting actinic keratoses (AKs) is poor to fair, even when performed by experienced dermatologists. What does this study add? This study examined the utility of a consensus discussion in improving reliability of counting AKs. The consensus discussion was held yearly for 4 years. Annual consensus discussion increased reliability, which improved progressively over 4 years. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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