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Wilmslow, United Kingdom

Dean E.J.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Dean E.J.,Derek Crowther Unit | Ward T.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Pinilla C.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Evasion of apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of solid tumours including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Malignant cells resist apoptosis through over-expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), such as X-linked IAP (XIAP).Methods: A phenylurea-based small molecule inhibitor of XIAP, XIAP antagonist compound (XAC) 1396-11, was investigated preclincally to determine its ability to sensitise to clinically relevant cytotoxics, potentially allowing dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy.Results: XIAP protein expression was detected in six NSCLC cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of XAC 1396-11 against cultured NSCLC cell lines in vitro was concentration-and time-dependent in both short-term and clonogenic assays. XAC 1396-11-induced apoptosis was confirmed by PARP cleavage and characteristic nuclear morphology. XAC 1396-11 synergised with vinorelbinecisplatin in H460 and A549 NSCLC cells. The mechanism of synergy was enhanced apoptosis, shown by increased cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and by the reversal of synergy by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Synergy between XAC 1396-11 and vinorelbine was augmented by optimising drug scheduling with superior effects when XAC 1396-11 was administered before vinorelbine.Conclusion: These preclinical data suggest that XIAP inhibition in combination with vinorelbine holds potential as a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

Dean E.J.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Cummings J.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Roulston A.,Gemin X Pharmaceuticals | Berger M.,Gemin X Pharmaceuticals | And 4 more authors.
Neoplasia | Year: 2011

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease in which, after initial sensitivity to platinum/etoposide chemotherapy, patients frequently relapse with drug-resistant disease. Deregulation of the Bcl-2 pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of SCLC, and early phase studies of Bcl-2 inhibitors have been initiated in SCLC. Obatoclax is a small-molecule drug designed to target the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members to a proapoptotic effect. Preclinical studies were conducted to clarify the kinetics of obatoclax-induced apoptosis in a panel of SCLC cell lines to assist with the interpretation of biomarker data generated during early phase clinical trials. In vitro, obatoclax was synergistic with cisplatin and etoposide, and "priming" cells with obatoclax before the cytotoxics maximized tumor cell death. Peak levels of apoptosis, reflected by cleaved cytokeratin 18 (CK18) levels (M30 ELISA) and caspase activity (SR-DEVD-FMK), occurred 24 hours after obatoclax treatment. A phase 1b-2 trial of obatoclax administered using two infusion regimens in combination with carboplatin and etoposide has been completed in previously untreated patients with extensive-stage SCLC. Circulating pharmacodynamic biomarkers of cell death, full-length and/or cleaved CK18, and oligonucleosomal DNA were studied in the phase 1b trial. All SCLC patients classified as "responders" after two cycles of treatment showed significantly increased levels of full-length and cleaved CK18 (M65 ELISA) on day 3 of study. However, the preclinical data and the absence of a peak in circulating caspasecleaved CK18 in trial patients suggest suboptimal timing of blood sampling, which will need refinement in future trials incorporating obatoclax. © 2011 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Source

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