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Kasseney B.D.,Zhejiang University | Deng T.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | Guo J.,Deqing Institute of Termite Control | Mo J.,Zhejiang University
Sociobiology | Year: 2010

Macrotermitinae termites live in an obligate mutualism with their associated fungi (Termitomyces sp., Basidiomycotina, Agaricales). Termitomyces fungi are grown by these termites on a substrate called fungus combs which are made with plant materials. An analytical study was carry out with fungus combs of three inquiline Macrotermitinae termites, Macrotermes menglongensis Han, Odontotermes conignatus Xia & Fand and Odontotermes gravelyi Silvestry. The contents of sand, holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose), klason lignin, and reducing sugars of all these three fungus combs were determined. The sand was found to be more important in amount (7.39% w/w) in O. conignatus fungus combs than the other two fungus combs. And among the lignocellulose components, the content of klason lignin in M. menglongensis fungus combs (36.82% w/w) was different from that of the two Odontotermes species. Like the klason lignin, the highest content (0.15% w/w) of reducing sugar was also found in M. menglongensis fungus combs. These results suggest that the symbiotic fungi present in these fungus combs have different hydrolytic functions. It also suggests that these termites have different feeding preferences.

Li J.,Urban Entomology Research Center | Hu Y.,Zhejiang University | Hu Y.,Deqing Institute of Termite Control | Jianqiang G.,Urban Entomology Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Sociobiology | Year: 2011

The Objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of gravel sands as a physical barrier against Coptotermes formosanus and Retkulitermesflaviceps under laboratory and field conditions. First, laboratory tests indicated that C.formosanus and R. flaviceps all penetrated the 7.0 cm thickness of soil layer as the controls after 2 and 3 days, respectively. Among the different particle diameters of gravel sands, the mean distance tunneled by C.formosanus was from 0.3 ± 0.1 cm to 2.8 ± 2.0 cm after 6 days. The distances tunneled by this termite in 1.36-1.98 mm and 1.36-2.58 mm gravel sands were significantly different compared with the control and the 1.10-1.21 mm gravel sands (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the result showed that aparticle size of 1.36-2.58 mm was effective as a barrier against C.formosanus invasion. The distances tunneled byi intestedparticlesizesofgravel sands (0.2±0.2cm-0.6±0.4cm) were similar and did not have significant differences among them, but had significant differences when compared with the control (P<0.05). Moreover, the tunneling distance by this termite in the particle sizes of 1.10- 1.21 mm, 1.21- 1.36 mm and 1.36-1.6l mm were the shortest. The results from field tests indicated that 1.36-2.58 mm particle diameter gravel sands could be used as barrier materials for retarding invasion of C. formosanus and R. flaviceps. This research demonstrates proper thickness and particle sizes of gravel sands can effectively prevent C. formosanus and R. flaviceps from entering homes and buildings.

Chen L.,Zhejiang University | Li H.,Zhejiang University | Li J.,Zhuzhou Institute of Termite Control | Zhu M.,Zhuzhou Institute of Termite Control | And 3 more authors.
Sociobiology | Year: 2010

Macrotermes barneyi is known to have two distinct types of soldier: major and minor soldiers. An abnormal soldier of M. barneyi was found in a colony located in the Shifeng Park, Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, P. R. China. The individuals of the abnormal soldier have remarkable morphological differences compared to the major and minor soldiers, such as shorter body length, clearly wasp-waisted thorax, narrower pronotum, and a shorter and wider head compared to the major soldier. Such morphological variation might be due to the evolution of soldiers or the special environment where the M. barneyi colony was loctaed.

Dong Y.,Zhejiang University | Dai Q.,Zhejiang University | Guo J.,Deqing Institute of Termite Control | Gong Y.,Deqing Institute of Termite Control | And 3 more authors.
Sociobiology | Year: 2011

The subterranean termite Coptotermesformosanus (Isoptera : Rhinotermitidae), an economically important pest species damaging trees and wooden structures, has a wide distribution in cities and rural areas in China. The efficacy of five monitoring stations for the monitoring of this termite activity was tested in four locations which were seriously infested by Coptotermes formosanus in Deqing county and Hangzhou city, Zhejiangprovince, China. Results showed that every monitoring station tested was useful to monitor the activity of termites. Termites would enter into the monitoring stations to feed on wood blocks within 1-2 weeks after installation of monitoring stations during the season of activity. However, the number of termites entering into a monitoring station to feed was positively related with the total volume of blocks in a monitoring station. Among the five monitoring stations tested, the monitoring stations produced by the Hangzhou Institute of Termite Control and the Shanghai Wanning Pest Control Technology Co., Ltd. trapped much more termites than those produced by the U.S. companies Ensystex Inc. and DowAgro Sciences. The numbers of termites trapped were 3051-8712 and 2038-8684 for the former and 236-503 and 291-522 for the latter. This means the design of a monitoring station has an important effect on the number of termites trapped.

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