The Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development , more commonly known as Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, is the department in the Government of Canada that manages Canada's diplomatic and consular relations, to encourage the country's international trade and to lead Canada’s international development and humanitarian assistance. It is also responsible for maintaining Canadian government offices abroad with diplomatic and consular status on behalf of all government departments.On June 1, 1909, The department was founded as the Department of External Affairs, the word "foreign" being deliberately avoided by Commonwealth Dominions such as Canada, since the department was founded while Canada's foreign policy was still controlled by the United Kingdom. Canada assumed progressively greater control over its foreign relations during and after World War I, and its full autonomy in this field was confirmed by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. For historical reasons the name External Affairs was retained, however.The Department of Trade and Commerce, which included the Trade Commissioner Service, was created in 1892 and was combined with the Department of Industry in 1969 to form the Department of Industry Trade and Commerce . Both External Affairs and ITC maintained networks of offices abroad, with varying degrees of coordination among them. The Department of Citizenship and Immigration also had offices abroad, in some cases dating back to Confederation.In the 1970s and early 1980s there were growing efforts to ensure coordination among all Canadian government offices outside Canada and to strengthen the leadership role and authority of Heads of Post over all Canadian government staff in their areas of accreditation. This led to a decision in 1979 by Prime Minister Joe Clark to consolidate the various streams of the Canadian Foreign Service, including the "political" stream, the Trade Commissioner Service and the Immigration Foreign Service. This was followed by a decision, in February 1982, by Prime Minister Pierre-Elliott Trudeau, to combine External Affairs and International Trade in a single department, initially as the Department of External Affairs and then as External Affairs and International Trade. The change was reflected in a new Department of External Affairs Act passed in 1983. The 1982 merger was part of larger reorganization of government that also combined the Industry component of ITC with the Department of Regional Economic Expansion.The department's name was changed to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in 1993 some 60 years after Canada had gained control over its foreign policy. Its responsibilities include Canadian relations with Commonwealth nations, although they are not considered foreign to one another.The change in name was formalized by an Act of Parliament in 1995. DFAIT maintained two separate ministers: the Minister of Foreign Affairs with lead responsibility for the portfolio, and the Minister of International Trade. The Minister for International Cooperation, with responsibilities for agencies such as the Canadian International Development Agency , also fell under DFAIT. CIDA was formally established in 1968 although a predecessor External Aid Office was created as a branch of the Department of External Affairs in 1960, building on roots that go back to the Colombo Plan in the early 1950s.A separate Department named Foreign Affairs Canada and another International Trade Canada were created in December 2003 through an administrative separation of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade; however, on February 15, 2005 legislation to formally abolish the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and provide a statutory basis for a separate Department of Foreign Affairs and a Department of International Trade failed to pass a first vote in the Canadian House of Commons. The government maintained the administrative separation of the two departments despite neither having been established through an Act of Parliament.In early 2006, under the new government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Foreign Affairs Canada and International Trade Canada were rejoined to again form a single department known as Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. The acronym DFAIT continued to be used in spite of this merge. In 2013, buried deep within the Conservative government's omnibus Budget bill C-60, "An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on March 21, 2013 and other measures", was a section which would fold the Canadian International Development Agency into the Department, creating the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development. The bill received Royal Assent on June 26, 2013. While the new legal name of the department is the "Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development", "Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada" is its public designation under the Federal Identity Program.The current leadership of DFATD is provided by three ministers: Minister of Foreign Affairs, The Minister of International Trade, and The Minister of International Development.The Minister of Foreign Affairs is responsible for foreign policy matters and, as the senior minister in the department, has overall responsibility for the department. The Minister of International Trade is, as the name suggests, responsible for international trade matters. The Minister of International Development is responsible for international development, poverty reduction and humanitarian assistance. John Baird now serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ed Fast serves as Minister of International Trade and Christian Paradis serves as Minister of International Development and Minister for La Francophonie. Lynne Yelich serves as the Minister of State . Leona Aglukkaq also falls under the Department in her capacity of Minister for the Arctic Council, in addition to holding the portfolios of Minister of the Environment and Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency. The Department also has four Parliamentary Secretaries.There are three Crown corporations that fall under the portfolios of the Ministers: the International Development Research Centre is the responsibility of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, while Export Development Canada and the Canadian Commercial Corporation fall to the Minister of International Trade.DFATD is headquartered in the Lester B. Pearson Building at 125 Sussex Drive on the banks of the Rideau River in Ottawa, but operates out of several properties in the National Capital Region . Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: AAT.2011.7-19. | Award Amount: 792.14K | Year: 2011
The proposal creates a platform for enhancing aeronautics and air transport research and development cooperation between the EU and Canada, and to explore the potential for and to promote the participation of Canadian stakeholders with their European counterparts in common activities. The objectives for CANNAPE are: To explore the potential for enhancing EU and Canadian cooperation through analysis of themes and topics of aeronautics and air transport R&D; To develop and enhance networks and partnerships between EU and Canada in specific technical themes that will provide mutually beneficial R&D cooperation; To promote Canadian participation in the aeronautics and air transport activities of FP7 through focused workshops, information and advisory services. CANNAPE will build on previous work undertaken, and will capture the aeronautics and air transport capabilities and needs of the EU and Canada, to enhance further co-operation. CANNAPE will be the catalyst for R&D projects that will have both Canadian and European partners. CANNAPEs successes and impact assessment will be based on: Success in bringing about increased networking and partnering in the aeronautics R&D community, measured by determining the greater extent of FP7 consortium arrangements, and range and number of EU partner organisations with which Canada collaborate; Involvement of key Canadian organisations who can assist with Canadian engagement in joint activities, The extent to which cooperative relationships are leveraged through joint identification of needs and priorities for collaboration, and An overall increase in participation in FP7 by the Canadian aeronautics research communities. The project will have a core group of partners that will undertake facilitation with the wider community. Other participants will be part of a Steering Group, participating in specific tasks. Both groups will consist of Canadian and European partners, who will be in a position to provi
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2013-2.1 | Award Amount: 1.65M | Year: 2013
ERA-Can Plus promotes cooperation between the European Union and Canada across the science, technology and innovation chain to support and encourage their mutual prosperity, address common societal issues and meet global challenges in the most effective and efficient way possible: together. It is a 36-month project, led by APRE together with the Government of Canada in concert with sector leaders in the Canadian academic and business communities and leading organizations for research and innovation development across Europe in Austria, France and Germany. The project is structured around three interlocking pillars: (i) Enriching the EU-Canada policy dialogue by identifying areas of mutual interest and targeted opportunities and by developing implementation plans based on the analysis of Canadian and European policies, programs and participation, surveys of researchers and innovators and program level cooperation meetings (ii) Stimulating transatlantic cooperation between researchers and innovators by raising awareness of the opportunities available through communications activities as well as international workshops and networking activities (iii) Enhancing coordination among Canadian federal and provincial program owners, sector leaders and networks and their counterparts at the European level and in European Member States through the organization of priority setting workshops, symposia on international innovation and research infrastructure and preparation of an action plan for bringing research results to market. The project will also coordinate Canadian NCP networks and prepare a feasibility study for a joint EU Member State Liaison Office in Ottawa. The pillars are linked, all focused on a number of global and societal challenges identified through the policy dialogue as areas of mutual interest for Europe and Canada. In this way, ERA-Can Plus offers a strong and sustainable structure for advancing cooperation with tangible benefit for Canadians and Europeans
Cavell J.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade |
Cavell J.,Carleton University
Polar Record | Year: 2010
Joseph Elzéar Bernier's well known sector claim of 1 July 1909 was predated by a similar, but until now unknown, proclamation in 1907. Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, although eager to assert Canadian sovereignty, was unwilling to countenance the first claim because he did not think that the right time for such a gesture had yet come. However, in 1909 Bernier's action was welcomed, but only as a convenient way to counter the widely publicised American claim made by Robert Peary. In the eyes of government officials, neither of Bernier's proclamations held any real importance for Canada's northern sovereignty which rested primarily on the 1880 transfer of ownership from Britain. Bernier believed that his achievements had never been sufficiently recognised, but in fact the problem was that he himself overrated their significance. © Cambridge University Press 2010.
Formanova N.,McGill University |
Formanova N.,Bayer BioScience N.V. |
Stollar R.,McGill University |
Geddy R.,McGill University |
And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010
The two forms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) native to the oilseed rape or canola species Brassica napus, nap and pol, have novel features that may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms through which CMS/nuclear restorer systems evolve. One such feature is the finding that the distinct nuclear restorer genes for the two systems represent different alleles or haplotypes of the same nuclear locus. Improved understanding of how these systems have evolved will require molecular cloning and characterization of this novel locus. We have employed an approach that exploits the regional co-linearity between the Arabidopsis and Brassica genomes to construct a high-resolution genetic map of the nuclear restorer for the pol system, Rfp. Specifically, Arabidopsis-derived sequences have been used as a set of ordered RFLP probes to localize Rfp to a region of the B. napus genome equivalent to a 115 kb interval on Arabidopsis chromosome 1. Based on the known relationship of physical distances between orthologous segments of Arabidopsis and Brassica chromosomes, it is anticipated that the B. napus restorer locus is now mapped to sufficient resolution to permit its isolation and characterization. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Cavell J.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade
Polar Record | Year: 2011
This article examines the evolution of Canadian Arctic policy during Sir Wilfrid Laurier's years as prime minister (1896-1911). Explorer Joseph Elzéar Bernier, who commanded three government expeditions in this period, vigorously promoted the idea that he himself had roused the sluggish government to action. He also alleged that Laurier had promised to sponsor a Canadian voyage to the North Pole, a promise that was later broken. However, archival documents show that neither of these claims is true. Instead, Laurier and other members of his government first showed their determination to assert Canada's northern sovereignty in 1897, a year before Bernier came on the scene. Although Bernier hoped that his first northern voyage might be turned towards the pole, there was no promise from Laurier. Subsequent policy developments were often haphazard due to interdepartmental conflicts and personality clashes, but by the end of the Laurier years a reasonably effective Arctic programme had been created. Though Bernier played an important part in carrying out the government's agenda, many of his actions (most notably his famous July 1909 sector claim) were aimed more at enhancing his own fame than at securing Canada's title to the Arctic. The article places Bernier's Arctic career in its proper context, and at the same time highlights the contributions of other men who lacked his flair for publicity. It thus provides a more accurate factual basis for future work on the period. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.
Cavell J.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade
Polar Record | Year: 2014
Many writers have presented Joseph Elzéar Bernier (1852-1934) as a hero whose key role in establishing Canada's sovereignty over the Arctic islands was unjustly downplayed by the government he served. According to this view, the sector claim that Bernier made on 1 July 1909 is the true foundation of Canada's title to the archipelago. This article draws on government files to assess civil servants' attitude to his sovereignty-related activities. It also describes the role played by James White, whose more sophisticated and effective sector concept predated Bernier's and served as the basis for the official sector claim made in June 1925. The evidence indicates that government officials in the 1920s were well justified in their doubts about Bernier's pretensions. However, even though they rejected his version of the sector theory and resented the campaign of self-glorification on which he embarked after his retirement, their personal relations with him were good, and they took considerable trouble to ensure what they considered to be an appropriate degree of recognition for him. The article therefore clarifies the differences between Bernier's rhetoric and reality, particularly with regard to the sector principle. © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Washer M.J.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade
Proceedings of the International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, ICEM | Year: 2011
Following the "911" attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative in 2002 to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. This major international initiative addressed four priority areas: (1) Chemical Weapon Destruction (2) Nuclear powered submarine eliminations (3) Nuclear and radiological security; and (4) Employment for former weapon scientists. Additionally the initiative has addressed Biological Non- Proliferation. Canada's execution of all these program areas has resulted in substantial environmental benefits aside from the eradication and securing of WMMD. This paper reviews the environmental and radiological remediation achievements of the four primary Global Partnership program areas addressed under Canadian funding 2004 through 2011. Copyright © 2011 by The Government of Canada.
Cavell J.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade
Polar Record | Year: 2013
Few aspects of Canada's Arctic sovereignty claims have been more misunderstood than the sector theory, which many writers believe originated with and was put forward on Canada's behalf (whether officially or unofficially) by explorer Joseph Elzéar Bernier. However, several Canadian government officials in the 1920s were both shrewd and accurate in their assessment of Bernier's pretensions. This note focuses on the views of civil servant Oswald Sterling Finnie, as recorded in previously unexamined government documents. In the years following Bernier's retirement from government service in 1925, the explorer embarked on a campaign to win the place in history he felt he deserved, only to be thwarted by Finnie and his colleagues. The note also clarifies the differences between Bernier's 1907 and 1909 sector claims and the official sector claim made in 1925. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.
Adams J.,Geological Survey of Canada |
Halchuk S.,Geological Survey of Canada |
Awatta A.,Department of foreign Affairs and International Trade
9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2010, Including Papers from the 4th International Tsunami Symposium | Year: 2010
Seismic hazard design values are estimated for 161 Canadian Missions abroad. The method is broadly based on applying spectral shape and magnification factors to move from the 10%-in-50-year Peak horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA) values given by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) to the 2%-in-50-year PGA and spectral acceleration values desired. Four sets of factors were derived from Canadian seismic hazard results for Continental Low Seismicity, Continental Moderate Seismicity, Plate Margin, and Plate Boundary tectonic environments. The resulting design spectra are intended to be a) used for screening studies to assess the relative need for remedial work; b) used for Rapid Visual Screening (FEMA 154); and c) applied in the context of the National Building Code of Canada, in conjunction with local hazard maps and national building codes, in order to deliver appropriate safety to the Missions and continuity of consular services.