Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Department of Energy, United Kingdom
The Department of Energy was a department of the United Kingdom Government. The Department was established in January 1974, when the responsibility for energy production was transferred away from the Department of Trade and Industry in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis and with the importance of North Sea oil increasing.Following the privatisation of the energy industries in the United Kingdom, which had begun some ten years earlier, the Department was abolished in 1992. Many of its functions were abandoned, with the remainder being absorbed into other bodies or departments. The Office of Gas Supply and the Office of Electricity Regulation took over market regulation, the Energy Efficiency Office was transferred to the Department of the Environment, and various media-related functions were transferred to the Department for National Heritage. The core activities relating to UK energy policy were transferred back to the DTI.The Department of Energy was a significant source of funding for energy research, and for investigations into the potential for renewable energy technologies in the UK. Work funded or part-funded by the DoE included investigations into Geothermal power and the Severn Barrage Wikipedia.
Yang C.,University of Hong Kong |
Van Der Laak N.K.,University of Hong Kong |
Van Der Laak N.K.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Chan K.-Y.,University of Hong Kong |
Zhang X.,Shantou University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012
A microwave-assisted microemulsion synthesis of carbon supported Pt-WO 3 nanoparticles is presented. Amorphous WO 3 nanoparticles of 1.0 nm in size were first deposited onto carbon from an alkaline tungstate containing microemulsion via mixing with an acid containing microemulsion under controlled microwave exposure. Platinum was subsequently deposited onto the carbon supported WO 3 nanoparticles by reducing H 2PtCl 6 in a microemulsion under controlled microwave exposure forming nanoparticles with an average size of 2.5 nm. This method produced a homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles on the carbon support with a uniform Pt:W ratio. The Pt:W can be well controlled by varying the metal precursors' Pt:W ratio. Hydrogen adsorption, CO-stripping and Cu-UPD stripping method were used to estimate the electrochemical surface area of Pt in the Pt-WO 3 mixed catalyst system. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry experiments demonstrate that a 1:1 ratio of Pt:W has the highest electrocatalytic activity based on Pt mass for methanol oxidation in sulfuric acid. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity is attributed to both physical and chemical influence of the WO 3 component. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bishop J.D.K.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Axon C.J.,Brunel University |
Bonilla D.,University of Oxford |
Tran M.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013
Many researchers and industry observers claim that electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) could provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) bulk energy and ancillary services to an electricity network. This work quantified the impact on various battery characteristics whilst providing such services. The sensitivity of the impact of V2G services on battery degradation was assessed for EV and PHEV for different battery capacities, charging regimes, and battery depth of discharge. Battery degradation was found to be most dependent on energy throughput for both the EV and PHEV powertrains, but was most sensitive to charging regime (for EVs) and battery capacity (for PHEVs). When providing ancillary services, battery degradation in both powertrains was most sensitive to individual vehicle battery depth of discharge. Degradation arising from both bulk energy and ancillary services could be minimised by reducing the battery capacity of the vehicle, restricting the number of hours connected and reducing the depth of discharge of each vehicle for ancillary services. Regardless, best case minimum impacts of providing V2G services are severe such as to require multiple battery pack replacements over the vehicle lifetime. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Chandler S.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2011
Over the past 50 years a comprehensive regulatory framework for radioactive substances in the UK has been progressively introduced, important initial milestones being the white paper Cmnd 884 and the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. During the 1970s and 1980s there were a succession of enquiries and white papers which developed from the growing awareness of the problems of the nuclear waste legacy. This was followed by a comprehensive policy white paper in 1995: Cm 2919. In 1990, 1993, 1995 and 2005 some aspects of the 1960 Act were updated. The most recent, and most radical, modernisation took place in 2010, when the Act was incorporated into the Environmental Permitting Regulations, in England and Wales. Currently a major review of the exemption orders and exclusion criteria under the radioactive substances legislation is close to completion, which will complete the current phase of modernisation of the regulatory framework. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Nicholls C.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Building Research and Information | Year: 2014
Policy for reducing carbon emissions from non-domestic buildings in the UK relies at present on survey and modelling work carried out in the 1990s. The UK government's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) is engaged in a programme of new research to update this evidence base. The work has two main components. The first is a database - the National Energy Efficiency Data framework (NEED) - in which floor area and activity data for non-domestic premises are being linked to electricity and gas consumption at the individual property level. The second is a research project of sample surveys designed to elicit information about buildings and energy use, but also opportunities for abatement and the behavioural and organizational factors affecting efficiency improvements. A pilot survey of the food and mixed retail sector has been carried out in advance of further surveys of the entire range of building types. The research programme is described along with some of the methodological problems it raises. © Crown Copyright 2013.
Siddique N.A.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Liu F.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010
Fundamental understanding of catalyst layer nanostructure of hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical for improvement in performance and durability. A process based 3D mathematical model has been developed to elucidate the effect of electrode composition, porosity and ionomer weight fraction in catalyst layers on electrochemical and nano-scale transport phenomena. Numerical reconstruction of catalyst layer random structure has been performed through a controlled random algorithm, mimicking the experimental fabrication process. Nano-scale species transport properties, e.g., Knudsen diffusion of oxygen in nano-pores and proton transport in thin-film electrolyte, have been included in the model, allowing for more rigorous study of the catalyst layer. It was found that there is a threshold in both porosity and ionomer weight fractions, below which species percolation through the random structure becomes difficult due to reduced connectivity and increased isolation. The degree of mixing or size of agglomerates has been studied and it was discovered that increasing or decreasing the agglomerate number from the optimum value reduces the electrochemically active area (ECA) and deteriorates species transport, suggesting an optimum level of stirring of the catalyst ink during catalyst layer preparation is critical. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rogers H.V.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
IGT International Liquefied Natural Gas Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013
While globalisation of natural gas has been much generated much speculation and interest, in practical terms there are still barriers to be overcome. The driving force for globalisation is the profit motive of those in a position to arbitrage between disparately priced markets with flexible supply. Barriers to achieving the connectivity between markets which arbitrage inevitably fosters are sufficient flexible supply, infrastructure physical and contractual accessibility and market contractual structures. This paper examines the potential for such barriers to be overcome in the period to 2025. Given some of the key uncertainties underlying the global supply and demand fundamentals for natural gas the paper will also examine scenarios which are more likely to lead to globalisation and price convergence. Such uncertainties include Asian natural gas and LNG demand, US future production levels and global LNG supply growth. Relevant scenarios will be the subject of quantitative analysis based on data available just prior to the submission date of the paper. Of particular interest will be the implications for North America producers, European consumers, Russian suppliers and Asian LNG markets.
Morgan B.J.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Madden P.A.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
Ionic transport in conventional ionic solids is generally considered to proceed via independent diffusion events or "hops." This assumption leads to well-known Arrhenius expressions for transport coefficients, and is equivalent to assuming diffusion is a Poisson process. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the low-temperature B1, B3, and B4 AgI polymorphs, we have compared rates of ion hopping with corresponding Poisson distributions to test the assumption of independent hopping in these common structure types. In all cases diffusion is a non-Poisson process, and hopping is strongly correlated in time. In B1 the diffusion coefficient can be approximated by an Arrhenius expression, though the physical significance of the parameters differs from that commonly assumed. In low temperature B3 and B4, diffusion is characterized by concerted motion of multiple ions in short closed loops. Diffusion coefficients cannot be expressed in a simple Arrhenius form dependent on single-ion free energies, and intrinsic diffusion must be considered a many-body process. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Lim X.Y.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Andresen J.M.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011
The catalytic effect of boric oxide on the pyrolysis of empty palm oil fruit bunch (EFB) and oil palm fronds (OPF) in a fixed-bed reactor at 400 °C was investigated. Boric oxide was found to selectively reduce 50-80% of the hydroxyl and methoxy groups in both water soluble (WS) and non water soluble (NWS) fractions of the oil. The increase in water and char yield suggested that pyro-catalysis of boric oxide enhanced the cleavage of C-O bonds in the biomass polymers and the capability to retain the inherent oxygen of the biomass in the solid product. This allows organic compounds with less oxygen substitution to become volatile and condenses as bio-oil. A mechanism for pyrolysis of boric oxide with biomass showing the hydroxyl removal pathway is proposed in this study. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Lahn G.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom |
Preston F.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2013
Several Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are adopting strategies to rationalize domestic energy consumption and thereby save resources vital to their economic sustainability. This paper considers whether national target setting - particularly in terms of energy use against outputs - could help. Intensity targets have proved a popular choice amongst emerging economies. GDP based targets may be more politically acceptable than absolute energy because they allow for periods of high economic growth. Drawbacks for the GCC countries include poor data and the impact of oil price volatility on GDP. Acknowledging the expedient nature of targeting where market reforms will be slow, the paper recommends that GCC countries consider adopting fossil fuels or CO2 intensity targets. For Qatar and Kuwait per capita goals might work best. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman could adopt a GDP based goal within a range of percentages to allow for changes in the terms of trade. Contributing to this would be sectoral energy intensity targets -particularly in power generation, space cooling, vehicles and industrial production, for which there is ample potential to set regional benchmarks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Roddy D.J.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013
This paper makes a case for building syngas networks as a means of contributing to the reduction of industrial carbon footprints. After exploring historic and conventional approaches to producing syngas (or synthesis gas) from fossil fuels on increasingly large scales, the paper looks at ways of producing it from renewable sources and from surplus resource (or waste) from industrial, domestic, urban and agricultural systems. The many ways of converting syngas into power, industrial heat, fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemical products are then outlined along with the associated syngas purification requirements. Some of the processes involved provide an opportunity for cost-effective capture and storage of CO2. Pathways through this range of possibilities that enable a net reduction in energy footprint or in CO2 emissions are identified and exemplified. Recognising that those opportunities are likely to involve industrial facilities that are distributed spatially within a geographic area, the case for building an interconnecting syngas network is explored. Issues surrounding sizing the network, timing its growth, determining ownership and access arrangements, and planning/regulatory hurdles are found to be similar to the analogous case of building an industrial CO2 network, with the added complication that the term "syngas" tends to be used to cover a fairly wide range of gas compositions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.