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Dianat N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dianat N.,University Paris - Sud | Dianat N.,Departement Hospitalo University Hepatinov | Weber A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Biologie Aujourd'hui

The liver is associated with many diseases including metabolic and cholestatic diseases, cirrhosis as well as chronic and acute hepatitis. However, knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases remains limited due to the restricted access to liver biopsies and the lack of cellular models derived from patients. The liver is the main organ responsible for the elimination of xenobiotics and thus hepatocytes have a key role in toxicology and pharmacokinetics. The induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients with monogenic metabolic disorders, for which the corresponding gene is identified, are relevant in vitro models for the study of the mechanisms involved in generation of pathologies and also for drug screening. Towards this aim, robust protocols for generating liver cells, such as hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are essential. Our study focused on familial hypercholesterolemia disease modeling, as well as on establishing a protocol for generation of functional cholangiocytes from pluripotent stem cells. © Société de Biologie, 2016. Source

Tranchart H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tranchart H.,Departement Hospitalo University Hepatinov | Tranchart H.,University Paris - Sud | Koffi G.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 17 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery

Background: Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used routinely to prevent postoperative liver failure as a result of anticipated insufficient future liver remnant volume following resection. The authors have recently developed a technique for temporary PVE. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of repeated reversible PVE on hepatocyte proliferation and subsequent liver hypertrophy in rodents. Methods: Four treatments were compared (n = 21 rats per group): single reversible PVE, two PVEs separated by 14 days, partial portal vein ligation or sham procedure. The feasibility and tolerance of the procedure were assessed. Volumetric imaging by CT was used to estimate the evolution of liver volumes. After death, the weight of liver lobes was measured and hepatocyte proliferation evaluated by immunostaining. Results: Embolization of portal branches corresponding to 70 per cent of total portal flow was performed successfully in all animals. Repeated PVE induced additional hepatocyte proliferation. Repeated embolization resulted in superior hepatocyte proliferation in the non-occluded segments compared with portal vein ligation (31·1 versus 22·2 per cent; P = 0·003). The non-occluded to total liver volume ratio was higher in the repeated PVE group than in the single PVE and sham groups (P = 0·050 and P = 0·001 respectively). Conclusion: Repeated reversible PVE successfully induced additional hepatocyte proliferation and subsequent liver hypertrophy. Surgical relevance Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used routinely to prevent postoperative liver failure as a result of anticipated insufficient future liver remnant volume following resection. In the present study, a technique of repeated temporary PVE was developed in a rat model; this induced additional hepatocyte proliferation and an increase in liver volume compared with single embolization. This novel approach might help induce major hypertrophy of the future remnant liver, which could increase the rate of patients amenable to major liver resections. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

Steichen C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Steichen C.,University Paris - Sud | Steichen C.,Departement Hospitalo University Hepatinov | Luce E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 27 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine

The use of synthetic messenger RNAs to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly appealing for potential regenerative medicine applications, because it overcomes the common drawbacks of DNA-based or virus-based reprogramming strategies, including transgene integration in particular. We compared the genomic integrity of mRNA-derived iPSCs with that of retrovirus-derived iPSCs generated in strictly comparable conditions, by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses. We showed that mRNA-derived iPSCs do not differ significantly from the parental fibroblasts in SNP analysis, whereas retrovirus-derived iPSCs do. We found that the number of CNVs seemed independent of the reprogramming method, instead appearing to be clone-dependent. Furthermore, differentiation studies indicated that mRNA-derived iPSCs differentiated efficiently into hepatoblasts and that these cells did not load additional CNVs during differentiation. The integration-free hepatoblasts that were generated constitute a new tool for the study of diseased hepatocytes derived from patients' iPSCs and their use in the context of stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation. Our findings also highlight the need to conduct careful studies on genome integrity for the selection of iPSC lines before using them for further applications. © AlphaMed Press 2014. Source

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