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Roguin A.,Rambam Medical Center | Roguin A.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Camenzind E.,Institute Lorrain du Coeur et des Vaisseaux | Camenzind E.,University of Lorraine | And 10 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2017

Objectives This study sought to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation according to lesion location within or outside the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Background Proximal LAD artery involvement is considered uniquely in revascularization guidelines. The impact of LAD lesion location on long-term outcomes after revascularization is poorly understood in context of current percutaneous coronary intervention and medical therapy. Methods Among 8,709 patients enrolled in PROTECT (Patient Related Outcomes with Endeavor Versus Cypher Stenting Trial), a multicenter percutaneous coronary intervention trial, we compared the outcomes of 2,534 patients (29.1%) (3,871 lesions [31.5%]) with stents implanted in the proximal LAD to 6,172 patients (70.9%) (8,419 lesions [68.5%]) with stents implanted outside the proximal LAD. Results At the 4-year follow-up, death rates were the same (5.8% vs. 5.8%; p > 0.999), but more myocardial infarctions occurred in the proximal LAD group (6.2% vs. 4.9%; p = 0.015). The rate of clinically driven target vessel failure (TVF) (14.8% vs. 13.5%; p = 0.109), major adverse cardiac event(s) (MACE) (15.0% vs. 13.7%; hazard ratio: 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.97 to 1.31; p = 0.139), and stent thrombosis (2.1% vs. 2.0%; p = 0.800) were similar. Drug-eluting stent type had no interaction with MACE or TVF. In multivariate analysis, the proximal LAD was a predictor of myocardial infarction (p = 0.038) but not of TVF (p = 0.149) or MACE (p = 0.069). Conclusions In this study of contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention, proximal LAD location was associated with higher rates of myocardial infarction during the long-term follow-up, but there were no differences in stent thrombosis, death, TVF, or overall MACE. This finding may suggest that, in the drug-eluting stent era, proximal LAD no longer confers a different prognosis than other lesion sites. (Randomized Study Comparing Endeavor With Cypher Stents [PROTECT]; NCT00476957) © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation


Steg P.G.,Departement Hospitalo University | Steg P.G.,Royal Brompton Hospital | Van't Hof A.,Isala Klinieken | Hamm C.W.,Kerckhoff Clinic and Thoraxcenter | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, has been shown to reduce rates of bleeding and death in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether these benefits persist in contemporary practice characterized by prehospital initiation of treatment, optional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and novel P2Y12 inhibitors, and radial-artery PCI access use is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2218 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were being transported for primary PCI to receive either bivalirudin or unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin with optional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (control group). The primary outcome at 30 days was a composite of death or major bleeding not associated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), and the principal secondary outcome was a composite of death, reinfarction, or non-CABG major bleeding. RESULTS: Bivalirudin, as compared with the control intervention, reduced the risk of the primary outcome (5.1% vs. 8.5%; relative risk, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.82; P=0.001) and the principal secondary outcome (6.6% vs. 9.2%; relative risk, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96; P=0.02). Bivalirudin also reduced the risk of major bleeding (2.6% vs. 6.0%; relative risk, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.66; P<0.001). The risk of acute stent thrombosis was higher with bivalirudin (1.1% vs. 0.2%; relative risk, 6.11; 95% CI, 1.37 to 27.24; P=0.007). There was no significant difference in rates of death (2.9% vs. 3.1%) or reinfarction (1.7% vs. 0.9%). Results were consistent across subgroups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bivalirudin, started during transport for primary PCI, improved 30-day clinical outcomes with a reduction in major bleeding but with an increase in acute stent thrombosis. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Kereiakes D.J.,Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center | Kereiakes D.J.,Lindner Research Center | Yeh R.W.,Harvard University | Yeh R.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 22 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE Despite antirestenotic efficacy of coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare metal stents (BMS), the relative risk of stent thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular events is unclear. Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year provides ischemic event protection after DES, ischemic event risk is perceived to be less after BMS, and the appropriate duration of DAPT after BMS is unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare (1) rates of stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; composite of death,myocardial infarction, or stroke) after 30 vs 12 months of thienopyridine in patients treated with BMS taking aspirin and (2) treatment duration effect within the combined cohorts of randomized patients treated with DES or BMS as prespecified secondary analyses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS International, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing extended (30-months) thienopyridine vs placebo in patients taking aspirin who completed 12 months of DAPT without bleeding or ischemic events after receiving stents. The study was initiated in August 2009 with the last follow-up visit in May 2014. INTERVENTIONS Continued thienopyridine or placebo at months 12 through 30 after stent placement, in 11 648 randomized patients treated with aspirin, of whom 1687 received BMS and 9961 DES. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Stent thrombosis, MACCE, and moderate or severe bleeding. RESULTS Among 1687 patients treated with BMS whowere randomized to continued thienopyridine vs placebo, rates of stent thrombosiswere 0.5%vs 1.11% (n = 4 vs 9; hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95%CI, 0.15-1.64; P = .24), rates of MACCE were 4.04%vs 4.69%(n = 33 vs 38; HR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.57-1.47; P = .72), and rates of moderate/severe bleeding were 2.03%vs 0.90% (n = 16vs 7; P = .07), respectively. Among all 11 648 randomized patients (both BMS and DES), stent thrombosis rateswere 0.41% vs 1.32%(n = 23 vs 74; HR, 0.31; 95%CI, 0.19-0.50; P < .001), rates of MACCE were 4.29% vs 5.74%(n = 244 vs 323; HR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.62-0.87; P < .001), and rates of moderate/severe bleedingwere 2.45%vs 1.47%(n = 135 vs 80; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients undergoing coronary stent placement with BMS and who tolerated 12 months of thienopyridine, continuing thienopyridine for an additional 18 months compared with placebo did not result in statistically significant differences in rates of stent thrombosis, MACCE, or moderate or severe bleeding. However, the BMS subsetmay have been underpowered to identify such differences, and further trials are suggested. Copyright © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Steg P.G.,University Paris Diderot | Steg P.G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Steg P.G.,Departement Hospitalo University | Steg P.G.,Imperial College London | And 13 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prospective Observational Longitudinal Registry of Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (CLARIFY) registry enrolled outpatients in 45 countries with stable CAD in 2009 to 2010 with 2-year follow-up (median, 24.1 months; range, 1 day to 3 years). Enrollees included 32 105 outpatients with priormyocardial infarction, chest pain, and evidence of myocardial ischemia, evidence of CAD on angiography, or prior revascularization. Of these, 20 291 (63.2%) had undergone a noninvasive test for myocardial ischemia within 12 months of enrollment and were categorized into one of the following 4 groups: no angina or ischemia (n = 13 207 [65.1%]); evidence of myocardial ischemia without angina (silent ischemia) (n = 3028 [14.9%]); anginal symptoms alone (n = 1842 [9.1%]); and angina and ischemia (n = 2214 [10.9%]). EXPOSURES Stable CAD.Importance: In the era of widespread revascularization and effective antianginals, the prevalence and prognostic effect of anginal symptoms andmyocardial ischemia among patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are unknown.Objective: To describe the current clinical patterns among patients with stable CAD and the association of anginal symptoms ormyocardial ischemia with clinical outcomes.Main outcome and Measure: The composite of cardiovascular (CV)-related death or nonfatalmyocardial infarction.Results: Overall, 4056 patients (20.0%) had anginal symptoms and 5242 (25.8%) had evidence of myocardial ischemia on results of noninvasive testing. Of 469 CV-related deaths ormyocardial infarctions, 58.2%occurred in patients without angina or ischemia, 12.4%in patients with ischemia alone, 12.2%in patients with angina alone, and 17.3%in patients with both. The hazard ratios for the primary outcome relative to patients without angina or ischemia and adjusted for age, sex, geographic region, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were 0.90 (95%CI, 0.68-1.20; P = .47) for ischemia alone, 1.45 (95%CI, 1.08-1.95; P = .01) for angina alone, and 1.75 (95%CI, 1.34-2.29; P < .001) for both. Similar findings were observed for CV-related death and for fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction.Conclusions and Relevance: In outpatients with stable CAD, anginal symptoms (with or without ischemia on noninvasive testing) but not silent ischemia appear to be associated with an increased risk for adverse CV outcomes. Most CV events occurred in patients without angina or ischemia. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Tendera M.,University of Silesia | Chassany O.,University Paris Diderot | Ferrari R.,University of Ferrara | Ford I.,University of Glasgow | And 6 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2016

Background - To explore the effect of ivabradine on angina-related quality of life (QoL) in patients participating in the Study Assessing the Morbidity-Mortality Benefits of the If Inhibitor Ivabradine in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (SIGNIFY) QoL substudy. Methods and Results - QoL was evaluated in a prespecified subgroup of SIGNIFY patients with angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class score, ≥2 at baseline) using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and a generic visual analogue scale on health status. Data were available for 4187 patients (2084 ivabradine and 2103 placebo). There were improvements in QoL in both treatment groups. The primary outcome of change in physical limitation score at 12 months was 4.56 points for ivabradine versus 3.40 points for placebo (E, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to 2.05; P=0.085). The ivabradine-placebo difference in physical limitation score was significant at 6 months (P=0.048). At 12 months, the visual analogue scale and the other Seattle Angina Questionnaire dimensions were higher among ivabradine-Treated patients, notably angina frequency (P<0.001) and disease perception (P=0.006). Patients with the worst QoL at baseline (ie, those in the lowest tertile of score) had the best improvement in QoL for 12 months, with improvements in physical limitation and a significant reduction in angina frequency (P=0.034). The effect on QoL was maintained over the study duration, and ivabradine patients had better scores on angina frequency at every visit to 36 months. Conclusions - Treatment with ivabradine did not affect the primary outcome of change in physical limitation score at 12 months. It did produce consistent improvements in other self-reported QoL parameters related to angina pectoris, notably in terms of angina frequency and disease perception. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Caligiuri G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Caligiuri G.,University Paris Diderot | And 7 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2015

The immune response requires major changes to metabolic processes, and indeed, energy metabolism and functional activation are fully integrated in immune cells to determine their ability to divide, differentiate, and carry out effector functions. Immune cell metabolism has therefore become an attractive target area for therapeutic purposes. A neglected aspect in the translation of immunometabolism is the critical connection between systemic and cellular metabolism. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding and manipulating the integration of systemic and immune cell metabolism through in-depth analysis of immune cell phenotype and function in human metabolic diseases and, in parallel, of the effects of conventional metabolic drugs on immune cell differentiation and function. We examine how the recent identification of selective metabolic programs operating in distinct immune cell subsets and functions has the potential to deliver tools for cell- and function-specific immunometabolic targeting. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Scirica B.M.,Harvard University | Bhatt D.L.,Harvard University | Bhatt D.L.,VA Boston Healthcare System | Braunwald E.,Harvard University | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of many current antihyperglycemic agents, including saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of, or were at risk for, cardiovascular events to receive saxagliptin or placebo and followed them for a median of 2.1 years. Physicians were permitted to adjust other medications, including antihyperglycemic agents. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. RESULTS: A primary end-point event occurred in 613 patients in the saxagliptin group and in 609 patients in the placebo group (7.3% and 7.2%, respectively, according to 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratio with saxagliptin, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.12; P=0.99 for superiority; P<0.001 for noninferiority); the results were similar in the "on-treatment" analysis (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.17). The major secondary end point of a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or heart failure occurred in 1059 patients in the saxagliptin group and in 1034 patients in the placebo group (12.8% and 12.4%, respectively, according to 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.11; P=0.66). More patients in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group were hospitalized for heart failure (3.5% vs. 2.8%; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.51; P=0.007). Rates of adjudicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were similar in the two groups (acute pancreatitis, 0.3% in the saxagliptin group and 0.2% in the placebo group; chronic pancreatitis, <0.1% and 0.1% in the two groups, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: DPP-4 inhibition with saxagliptin did not increase or decrease the rate of ischemic events, though the rate of hospitalization for heart failure was increased. Although saxagliptin improves glycemic control, other approaches are necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Mahaffey K.W.,Duke University | Mahaffey K.W.,Stanford University | Held C.,Uppsala University | Wojdyla D.M.,Duke University | And 19 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives: This study sought to report the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Background: In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: A clinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, on the basis of events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data, and per protocol, excluded silent MI. Results: Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 clopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 clopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite endpoint. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 clopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% clopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.95). Nonprocedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MIs using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00). Conclusions: In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with clopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI endpoints compared with site investigators. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Yeh R.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Yeh R.W.,Harvard University | Kereiakes D.J.,Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center | Steg P.G.,University Paris Diderot | And 18 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy may be different for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with more stable presentations. Objectives This study sought to assess the benefits and risks of 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy among patients undergoing coronary stent implantation with and without MI. Methods The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. The effect of continued thienopyridine on ischemic and bleeding events among patients initially presenting with versus without MI was assessed. The coprimary endpoints were definite or probable stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary safety endpoint was GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries) moderate or severe bleeding. Results Of 11,648 randomized patients (9,961 treated with drug-eluting stents, 1,687 with bare-metal stents), 30.7% presented with MI. Between 12 and 30 months, continued thienopyridine reduced stent thrombosis compared with placebo in patients with and without MI at presentation (MI group, 0.5% vs. 1.9%, p < 0.001; no MI group, 0.4% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001; interaction p = 0.69). The reduction in MACCE for continued thienopyridine was greater for patients with MI (3.9% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001) compared with those with no MI (4.4% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.08; interaction p = 0.03). In both groups, continued thienopyridine reduced MI (2.2% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001 for MI; 2.1% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001 for no MI; interaction p = 0.15) but increased bleeding (1.9% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.005 for MI; 2.6% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.007 for no MI; interaction p = 0.21). Conclusions Compared with 12 months of therapy, 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy reduced the risk of stent thrombosis and MI in patients with and without MI, and increased bleeding. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study [The DAPT Study]; NCT00977938) © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Background-Risk stratification and the use of specific biomarkers have been proposed for tailoring treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We investigated the prognostic importance of highsensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in relation to randomized treatment (ticagrelor versus clopidogrel) and management strategy (with or without revascularization) in the NSTE-ACS subgroup of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Methods and Results-Of 18 624 patients in the PLATO trial, 9946 had an entry diagnosis of NSTE-ACS and baseline blood samples available. During index hospitalization, 5357 were revascularized, and 4589 were managed without revascularization. Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 were determined and assessed according to predefined cutoff levels. Median follow-up was 9.1 months. Increasing levels of hs-TnT were associated with increasing risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in medically managed patients (P<0.001), but not in those managed invasively. NT-proBNP and GDF-15 levels were associated with the same events independent of management strategy. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced the rate of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS and hs-TnT ≥14.0 ng/L in both invasively and noninvasively managed patients; in patients with hs-TnT <14.0 ng/L, there was no difference between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the noninvasive group Conclusions-Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 are predictors of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS managed noninvasively, and NT-proBNP and GDF-15 also in those managed invasively. Elevated hs-TnT predicts substantial benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel both in invasively and noninvasively managed patients, but no apparent benefit was seen at normal hs-TnT. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

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