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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Steg P.G.,Departement Hospitalo University | Steg P.G.,UK National Heart and Lung Institute | Van't Hof A.,Isala Klinieken | Hamm C.W.,Kerckhoff Clinic and Thoraxcenter | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, has been shown to reduce rates of bleeding and death in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether these benefits persist in contemporary practice characterized by prehospital initiation of treatment, optional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and novel P2Y12 inhibitors, and radial-artery PCI access use is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2218 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were being transported for primary PCI to receive either bivalirudin or unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin with optional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (control group). The primary outcome at 30 days was a composite of death or major bleeding not associated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), and the principal secondary outcome was a composite of death, reinfarction, or non-CABG major bleeding. RESULTS: Bivalirudin, as compared with the control intervention, reduced the risk of the primary outcome (5.1% vs. 8.5%; relative risk, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.82; P=0.001) and the principal secondary outcome (6.6% vs. 9.2%; relative risk, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96; P=0.02). Bivalirudin also reduced the risk of major bleeding (2.6% vs. 6.0%; relative risk, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.66; P<0.001). The risk of acute stent thrombosis was higher with bivalirudin (1.1% vs. 0.2%; relative risk, 6.11; 95% CI, 1.37 to 27.24; P=0.007). There was no significant difference in rates of death (2.9% vs. 3.1%) or reinfarction (1.7% vs. 0.9%). Results were consistent across subgroups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bivalirudin, started during transport for primary PCI, improved 30-day clinical outcomes with a reduction in major bleeding but with an increase in acute stent thrombosis. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Kereiakes D.J.,Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center | Kereiakes D.J.,Lindner Research Center | Yeh R.W.,Harvard University | Yeh R.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 22 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

IMPORTANCE Despite antirestenotic efficacy of coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare metal stents (BMS), the relative risk of stent thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular events is unclear. Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year provides ischemic event protection after DES, ischemic event risk is perceived to be less after BMS, and the appropriate duration of DAPT after BMS is unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare (1) rates of stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; composite of death,myocardial infarction, or stroke) after 30 vs 12 months of thienopyridine in patients treated with BMS taking aspirin and (2) treatment duration effect within the combined cohorts of randomized patients treated with DES or BMS as prespecified secondary analyses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS International, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing extended (30-months) thienopyridine vs placebo in patients taking aspirin who completed 12 months of DAPT without bleeding or ischemic events after receiving stents. The study was initiated in August 2009 with the last follow-up visit in May 2014. INTERVENTIONS Continued thienopyridine or placebo at months 12 through 30 after stent placement, in 11 648 randomized patients treated with aspirin, of whom 1687 received BMS and 9961 DES. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Stent thrombosis, MACCE, and moderate or severe bleeding. RESULTS Among 1687 patients treated with BMS whowere randomized to continued thienopyridine vs placebo, rates of stent thrombosiswere 0.5%vs 1.11% (n = 4 vs 9; hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95%CI, 0.15-1.64; P = .24), rates of MACCE were 4.04%vs 4.69%(n = 33 vs 38; HR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.57-1.47; P = .72), and rates of moderate/severe bleeding were 2.03%vs 0.90% (n = 16vs 7; P = .07), respectively. Among all 11 648 randomized patients (both BMS and DES), stent thrombosis rateswere 0.41% vs 1.32%(n = 23 vs 74; HR, 0.31; 95%CI, 0.19-0.50; P < .001), rates of MACCE were 4.29% vs 5.74%(n = 244 vs 323; HR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.62-0.87; P < .001), and rates of moderate/severe bleedingwere 2.45%vs 1.47%(n = 135 vs 80; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients undergoing coronary stent placement with BMS and who tolerated 12 months of thienopyridine, continuing thienopyridine for an additional 18 months compared with placebo did not result in statistically significant differences in rates of stent thrombosis, MACCE, or moderate or severe bleeding. However, the BMS subsetmay have been underpowered to identify such differences, and further trials are suggested. Copyright © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Yeh R.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Yeh R.W.,Harvard University | Kereiakes D.J.,Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center | Steg P.G.,University Paris Diderot | And 18 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Background The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy may be different for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with more stable presentations. Objectives This study sought to assess the benefits and risks of 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy among patients undergoing coronary stent implantation with and without MI. Methods The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. The effect of continued thienopyridine on ischemic and bleeding events among patients initially presenting with versus without MI was assessed. The coprimary endpoints were definite or probable stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary safety endpoint was GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries) moderate or severe bleeding. Results Of 11,648 randomized patients (9,961 treated with drug-eluting stents, 1,687 with bare-metal stents), 30.7% presented with MI. Between 12 and 30 months, continued thienopyridine reduced stent thrombosis compared with placebo in patients with and without MI at presentation (MI group, 0.5% vs. 1.9%, p < 0.001; no MI group, 0.4% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001; interaction p = 0.69). The reduction in MACCE for continued thienopyridine was greater for patients with MI (3.9% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001) compared with those with no MI (4.4% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.08; interaction p = 0.03). In both groups, continued thienopyridine reduced MI (2.2% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001 for MI; 2.1% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001 for no MI; interaction p = 0.15) but increased bleeding (1.9% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.005 for MI; 2.6% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.007 for no MI; interaction p = 0.21). Conclusions Compared with 12 months of therapy, 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy reduced the risk of stent thrombosis and MI in patients with and without MI, and increased bleeding. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study [The DAPT Study]; NCT00977938) © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Scirica B.M.,Harvard University | Bhatt D.L.,Harvard University | Braunwald E.,Harvard University | Steg P.G.,University Paris Diderot | And 15 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of many current antihyperglycemic agents, including saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of, or were at risk for, cardiovascular events to receive saxagliptin or placebo and followed them for a median of 2.1 years. Physicians were permitted to adjust other medications, including antihyperglycemic agents. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. RESULTS: A primary end-point event occurred in 613 patients in the saxagliptin group and in 609 patients in the placebo group (7.3% and 7.2%, respectively, according to 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratio with saxagliptin, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.12; P=0.99 for superiority; P<0.001 for noninferiority); the results were similar in the "on-treatment" analysis (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.17). The major secondary end point of a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or heart failure occurred in 1059 patients in the saxagliptin group and in 1034 patients in the placebo group (12.8% and 12.4%, respectively, according to 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.11; P=0.66). More patients in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group were hospitalized for heart failure (3.5% vs. 2.8%; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.51; P=0.007). Rates of adjudicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were similar in the two groups (acute pancreatitis, 0.3% in the saxagliptin group and 0.2% in the placebo group; chronic pancreatitis, <0.1% and 0.1% in the two groups, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: DPP-4 inhibition with saxagliptin did not increase or decrease the rate of ischemic events, though the rate of hospitalization for heart failure was increased. Although saxagliptin improves glycemic control, other approaches are necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Background-Risk stratification and the use of specific biomarkers have been proposed for tailoring treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We investigated the prognostic importance of highsensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in relation to randomized treatment (ticagrelor versus clopidogrel) and management strategy (with or without revascularization) in the NSTE-ACS subgroup of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Methods and Results-Of 18 624 patients in the PLATO trial, 9946 had an entry diagnosis of NSTE-ACS and baseline blood samples available. During index hospitalization, 5357 were revascularized, and 4589 were managed without revascularization. Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 were determined and assessed according to predefined cutoff levels. Median follow-up was 9.1 months. Increasing levels of hs-TnT were associated with increasing risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in medically managed patients (P<0.001), but not in those managed invasively. NT-proBNP and GDF-15 levels were associated with the same events independent of management strategy. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced the rate of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS and hs-TnT ≥14.0 ng/L in both invasively and noninvasively managed patients; in patients with hs-TnT <14.0 ng/L, there was no difference between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the noninvasive group Conclusions-Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 are predictors of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS managed noninvasively, and NT-proBNP and GDF-15 also in those managed invasively. Elevated hs-TnT predicts substantial benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel both in invasively and noninvasively managed patients, but no apparent benefit was seen at normal hs-TnT. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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