Saint-Joseph-de-Rivière, France
Saint-Joseph-de-Rivière, France

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Larrey D.,Departement dHepato Gastroenterologie | Lohse A.W.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | Trepo C.,Hospices Civils de Lyon | Bronowicki J.-P.,University of Lorraine | And 9 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Deleobuvir (BI 207127) is an investigational oral nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitisCvirus (HCV) NS5BRNApolymerase. Antiviral activity, virology, pharmacokinetics, and safety were assessed inHCVgenotype 1-infected patients receiving 5 days' deleobuvir monotherapy. In this double-blind phase 1b study, treatment-naive (TN; n=15) and treatment-experienced (TE; n=45) patients without cirrhosis received placebo or deleobuvir at 100, 200, 400, 800, or 1,200 mg every 8 h (q8h) for 5 days. Patients with cirrhosis (n=13) received deleobuvir at 400 or 600 mg q8h for 5 days. Virologic analyses included NS5B genotyping and phenotyping of individual isolates. At day 5, patients without cirrhosis had dose-dependent medianHCVRNAreductions of up to 3.8 log10 (with no placebo response); patients with cirrhosis had medianHCVRNAreductions of approximately 3.0 log10. Three patients discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The most common AEs were gastrointestinal, nervous system, and skin/cutaneous tissue disorders. Plasma exposure of deleobuvir was supraproportional at doses>400 mg q8h and approximately 2-fold higher in patients with cirrhosis than in patients without cirrhosis. No virologic breakthrough was observed. NS5B substitutions associated with deleobuvir resistance in vitro were detected in 9/59 patients; seven encoded P495 substitutions, including P495L, which conferred 120- to 310-fold-decreased sensitivity to deleobuvir. P495 variants did not persist in follow-up without selective drug pressure. Deleobuvir monotherapy was generally well tolerated and demonstrated dose-dependent antiviral activity againstHCVgenotype 1 over 5 days. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Mohamed S.,Laboratoire Alphabio | Mohamed S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bourliere M.,Departement dhepato gastroenterologie | Benali S.,Departement dhepato gastroenterologie | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2016

Background: The detection of low frequency mutants in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) receiving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is still debated. The clinical relevance of the mutant viral load has not yet been evaluated. Objectives: To assess the viral load of resistance associated variants (RAVs) in patients at different time points, including the baseline, virological failure and one year after the cessation of therapy. Study design: The study included 22 patients who were previously treated with protease inhibitors (PI) (with telaprevir and boceprevir). For each patient, three time points were assessed using ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). Results: Baseline mutations were observed in 14/22 patients (64%). At virological failure, RAVs were detected in 18/22 patients (82%). Persistent RAVs were observed in four HCV GT 1a patients (18%). Persistence mutations were found only in HCV GT 1a patients. The baseline relative V36M, R155K, R155T and A156T mutation load of patients with persistent RAVs was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of patients without persistent RAVs. Conclusion: The UDPS follow-up analysis demonstrated that the presence of BOC or TLP-RAVs persist one year after therapy cessation only in HCV GT 1a patients. The relative mutant viral load should be considered prior to any PI based re-treatment. This concept of the baseline mutation viral load must be validated using current therapy and must be validated on a larger cohort. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Laboratoire Alphabio, Aix - Marseille University, Departement dhepato gastroenterologie, Advanced Biological Laboratories ABL and Hopital Europeen
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology | Year: 2016

The detection of low frequency mutants in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) receiving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is still debated. The clinical relevance of the mutant viral load has not yet been evaluated.To assess the viral load of resistance associated variants (RAVs) in patients at different time points, including the baseline, virological failure and one year after the cessation of therapy.The study included 22 patients who were previously treated with protease inhibitors (PI) (with telaprevir and boceprevir). For each patient, three time points were assessed using ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS).Baseline mutations were observed in 14/22 patients (64%). At virological failure, RAVs were detected in 18/22 patients (82%). Persistent RAVs were observed in four HCV GT 1a patients (18%). Persistence mutations were found only in HCV GT 1a patients. The baseline relative V36M, R155K, R155T and A156T mutation load of patients with persistent RAVs was significantly higher (P<0.001) than those of patients without persistent RAVs.The UDPS follow-up analysis demonstrated that the presence of BOC or TLP-RAVs persist one year after therapy cessation only in HCV GT 1a patients. The relative mutant viral load should be considered prior to any PI based re-treatment. This concept of the baseline mutation viral load must be validated using current therapy and must be validated on a larger cohort.


PubMed | Service Hepato gastro enterologie, Service des maladies de lappareil digestif, Service Hepatologie et Gastro Enterologie, Service dHepato Gastro Enterologie and 10 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

No efficient medical treatment is available for severe acute hepatitis (SAH) except N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. The human C-type lectin Reg3, referred to as ALF-5755, improved survival in an animal model of acute liver failure and was well tolerated in a phase 1 trial in humans. We performed a phase 2a trial of ALF5755 in non-acetaminophen induced SAH.double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The primary end-point was the improvement in the coagulation protein synthesis assessed by the change of Prothrombin (PR) during the 72 hours following treatment initiation calculated as PRH0 minus PRH72 divided by 72 (PR slope H0H72). Intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis of the entire group and the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/AIH (auto-immune hepatitis) sub-group were done separately.57 patients were included. Twenty-eight received ALF-5755, 29 the placebo. Etiologies were: Hepatitis A (n = 10), HBV (n = 13), AIH (n = 9), drug-induced (n = 8), other (n = 17). On the whole group, nor the PR slope H0H72 (0.180.31 vs 0.250.32), nor the transplant-free survival rate at day 21 (75 vs 86%) differed between groups. Conversely, in the HBV-AIH subgroup, in which ALF was more severe, PR slope H0-H72 was higher in the ALF-5755 arm, the difference being significant in PP analysis (0.0480.066 vs -0.0400.099, p = 0.04); the median length of hospitalization was lower in the ALF-5755 group (8 vs 14 days, p = 0.02).ALF-5755 was not efficient in a ITT analysis performed on the whole sample; however it led to a significant, although moderate, clinical benefit in a PP analysis of the sub-group of patients with HBV or AIH related SAH. As HBV is the major cause of SAH in Asia and Africa and AIH a growing cause, this study emphasizes the need to pursuit the evaluation of this novel medical treatment of SAH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318525.


Foster G.R.,Queen Mary, University of London | Ferenci P.,Vienna University Hospital | Asselah T.,University Paris Diderot | Mantry P.,Liver Institute at Methodist Dallas Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Viral Hepatitis | Year: 2016

Faldaprevir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor, was evaluated in HCV genotype 1-infected patients who failed peginterferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment during one of three prior faldaprevir trials. Patients who received placebo plus PegIFN/RBV and had virological failure during a prior trial were enrolled and treated in two cohorts: prior relapsers (n = 43) and prior nonresponders (null responders, partial responders and patients with breakthrough; n = 75). Both cohorts received faldaprevir 240 mg once daily plus PegIFN/RBV for 24 weeks. Prior relapsers with early treatment success (ETS; HCV RNA <25 IU/mL detectable or undetectable at week 4 and <25 IU/mL undetectable at week 8) stopped treatment at week 24. Others received PegIFN/RBV through week 48. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response (HCV RNA <25 IU/mL undetectable) 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12). More prior nonresponders than prior relapsers had baseline HCV RNA ≥800 000 IU/mL (80% vs 58%) and a non-CC IL28B genotype (91% vs 70%). Rates of SVR12 (95% CI) were 95.3% (89.1, 100.0) among prior relapsers and 54.7% (43.4, 65.9) among prior nonresponders; corresponding ETS rates were 97.7% and 65.3%. Adverse events led to faldaprevir discontinuations in 3% of patients. The most common Division of AIDS Grade ≥2 adverse events were anaemia (13%), nausea (10%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (9%). In conclusion, faldaprevir plus PegIFN/RBV achieved clinically meaningful SVR12 rates in patients who failed PegIFN/RBV in a prior trial, with response rates higher among prior relapsers than among prior nonresponders. The adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of faldaprevir. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Halfon P.,Laboratoire Alphabio | Bourliere M.,Departement dHepato gastroenterologie | Ouzan D.,Institute Arnault Tzanck | Maor Y.,Sheba Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that host genetics may be useful for predicting drug response and have supported the recommendation that single polynucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL28B should be investigated when treating hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1 infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single IL-28B genotype SNP rs8099917 or rs12979860 determination is sufficient to predict treatment failure in patients with chronic HCV. METHODS: A total of 198 patients were included; mean (±standard deviation) age was 47 ±12 years and 140 (71%) were men. One hundred and fifty-six (79%) patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 and 42 (21%) with HCV genotypes 2 or 3. One hundred and eight (55%) patients had sustained virologic response (SVR). Two SNPs in the IL-28B were analyzed (rs8099917 and rs12979860). RESULTS: A total of 115 (58%) patients had rs8099917 TT genotype and 61 (31%) had rs12979860 CC genotype. Rs8099917 TT and rs12979860 CC genotypes were associated with SVR in HCV genotype 1 patients [odds ratio=2.60 (1.36-5.00), P=0.004 and odds ratio=3.30 (1.58-6.90), P=0.03 respectively]. No association was found between SNPs and SVR in HCV genotype 2 or 3 patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that SNPs rs8099917 and rs12979860 used alone may be useful for predicting the outcome of HCV treatment. In a rational and cost-effective approach, determination of only one of these two SNPs is sufficient for predicting SVR. Because of the highest predictive SVR associated with rs12979860 CC compared with the rs8099917 TT (respective positive predictive value: 72% vs. 63%, P=ns), rs12979860 determination alone is sufficient for predicting interferon response. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Mohamed S.,Laboratoire Alphabio | Mohamed S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Raimondo A.,CDL Pharma | Penaranda G.,Laboratoire Alphabio | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background & Aims:Dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate the performance of DBS in hepatitis B virus (HBV) diagnosis using commercial tests in comparison to standard methods.Methods:Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from 200 patients: 100 patients with HBsAg negative status and 100 patients with HBsAg positive status. In the latter patient, HBeAg reactivity was tested. Ten samples of anti-HBs were collected from people vaccinated against HBV. We also studied 50 patients with positive HBV DNA viral load in plasma and 10 HBV DNA negative patients. HBV genotypes and gene polymerase mutations were determined in 10 randomly selected HBV-infected patients. The DBS sample consisted of 50 μL of whole blood, i.e. a 12-mm paper card.Results:The sensitivity thresholds of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibody were 0.30±0.08 IU/mL and 18.11±6.05 IU/mL, respectively, for DBS with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Sensitivity was 98% and specificity 100% for the detection of HBV DNA on a blotter, considering an HBV DNA threshold of 914.1±157.8 IU/ml. Ten patients had an HBeAg positive status in plasma, all were detected positive using DBS. HBV genotyping and mutation detection were successfully performed on DBS, with full concordance between the 10 paired DBS and plasma samples.Conclusion:This study shows DBS is a reliable alternative to plasma specimens for quantifying and detecting HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and genotyping. DBS may increase the opportunities for HBV testing and treatment follow-up in hard-to-reach individuals. © 2013 Mohamed et al.


Halfon P.,Laboratoire Alphabio | Ouzan D.,Institute Arnault Tzanck | Khiri H.,Laboratoire Alphabio | Penaranda G.,Laboratoire Alphabio | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860) have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC), dried blood spots (DBS), and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. Methods: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 μL). Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days) Results: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies) as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies). These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 μL, 4 μL, and 40 μL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. Conclusion: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals. © 2012 Halfon et al.


Ferenci P.,Medical University of Vienna | Asselah T.,University Paris Diderot | Foster G.R.,Queen Mary, University of London | Zeuzem S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 21 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims The efficacy and tolerability of faldaprevir, a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor, plus peginterferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study of treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype-1 infection. Methods Patients were randomly assigned (1:2:2) to PegIFN/RBV plus: placebo (arm 1, n = 132) for 24 weeks; faldaprevir (120 mg, once daily) for 12 or 24 weeks (arm 2, n = 259); or faldaprevir (240 mg, once daily) for 12 weeks (arm 3, n = 261). In arms 2 and 3, patients with early treatment success (HCV-RNA <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at week 8) stopped all treatment at week 24. Other patients received PegIFN/RBV until week 48 unless they met futility criteria. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Results SVR12 was achieved by 52%, 79%, and 80% of patients in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (estimated difference for arms 2 and 3 vs. arm 1: 27%, 95% confidence interval 17%-36%; and 29%, 95% confidence interval, 19%-38%, respectively; p <0.0001 for both). Early treatment success was achieved by 87% (arm 2) and 89% (arm 3) of patients, of whom 86% and 89% achieved SVR12. Adverse event rates were similar among groups; few adverse events led to discontinuation of all regimen components. Conclusions Faldaprevir plus PegIFN/RBV significantly increased SVR12, compared with PegIFN/RBV, in treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype-1 infection. No differences were seen in responses of patients given faldaprevir once daily at 120 or 240 mg. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver.


PubMed | Central Texas Clinical Research, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital Infante D Pedro, Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of viral hepatitis | Year: 2016

Faldaprevir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor, was evaluated in HCV genotype 1-infected patients who failed peginterferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment during one of three prior faldaprevir trials. Patients who received placebo plus PegIFN/RBV and had virological failure during a prior trial were enrolled and treated in two cohorts: prior relapsers (n = 43) and prior nonresponders (null responders, partial responders and patients with breakthrough; n = 75). Both cohorts received faldaprevir 240 mg once daily plus PegIFN/RBV for 24 weeks. Prior relapsers with early treatment success (ETS; HCV RNA <25 IU/mL detectable or undetectable at week 4 and <25 IU/mL undetectable at week 8) stopped treatment at week 24. Others received PegIFN/RBV through week 48. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response (HCV RNA <25 IU/mL undetectable) 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12). More prior nonresponders than prior relapsers had baseline HCV RNA 800,000 IU/mL (80% vs 58%) and a non-CC IL28B genotype (91% vs 70%). Rates of SVR12 (95% CI) were 95.3% (89.1, 100.0) among prior relapsers and 54.7% (43.4, 65.9) among prior nonresponders; corresponding ETS rates were 97.7% and 65.3%. Adverse events led to faldaprevir discontinuations in 3% of patients. The most common Division of AIDS Grade 2 adverse events were anaemia (13%), nausea (10%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (9%). In conclusion, faldaprevir plus PegIFN/RBV achieved clinically meaningful SVR12 rates in patients who failed PegIFN/RBV in a prior trial, with response rates higher among prior relapsers than among prior nonresponders. The adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of faldaprevir.

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