Bresson C.,Laboratoire Of Developpement Analytique Nucleaire |
Chartier F.,Departement de Physico Chimie |
Ansoborlo E.,CEA Marcoule Nuclear Site
Actualite Chimique | Year: 2012
The knowledge of the speciation of elements at trace and ultra-trace level in biological and environmental media is essential to gather information on their action mode and their fate in the biosphere and geosphere. Determining the speciation of an element in a given medium is a great challenge and requires the knowledge of the different methodological approaches and dedicated analytical tools. The main analytical techniques to obtain structural, molecular, elemental and isotopic information are described in this article. A brief description of separation techniques coupled to spectrometric techniques is reported. Imaging techniques which aim to obtain the in situ spatial distribution of elements and molecules in various solid samples are also discussed. The last part deals with the development of micro-analytical systems since they open crucial perspectives to speciation analysis of low sample amounts.