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Savard C.,University of Montreal | Provost C.,University of Montreal | Alvarez F.,University of Montreal | Pinilla V.,Departement de Biomedecine veterinaire | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp and is a common contaminant of grains in North America. Among farm animals, swine are the most susceptible to DON because it markedly reduces feed intake and decreases weight gain. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of several syndromes in weaning piglets collectively known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of DON on PCV2 replication in NPTr permissive cell line, and to determine eventual potentiating effects of DON on PCV2 infection in pigs. Noninfected and infected cells with PCV2 were treated with increasing concentrations of DON (0, 70, 140, 280, 560, 1200. ng/mL) and cell survival and virus titer were evaluated 72. h postinfection. Thirty commercial piglets were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups of 10 animals based on DON content of served diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5. mg/kg DON). All groups were further divided into subgroups of 6 pigs and were inoculated with PCV2b virus. The remaining pigs (control) were sham-inoculated with PBS. In vitro results showed that low concentrations of DON could potentially increase PCV2 replication depending on virus genotype. In vivo results showed that even though viremia and lung viral load tend to be higher in animal ingesting DON contaminated diet at 2.5. mg/kg, DON had no significant effect on clinical manifestation of PCVAD in PCV2b infected animals. DON has neither in vitro nor in vivo clear potentiating effects in the development of porcine circovirus infection despite slight increases in viral replication. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Savard C.,Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Center | Pinilla V.,Departement de Biomedecine veterinaire | Provost C.,Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Center | Gagnon C.A.,Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Center | Chorfi Y.,Departement de Biomedecine veterinaire
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs show a great sensitivity to DON, and because of the high proportion of grains in their diets, they are frequently exposed to this mycotoxin. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, the most important porcine viral pathogen in swine. Experimental infections were performed with 30 animals. Piglets were randomly divided into three groups of 10 animals based on DON content of diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5. mg/kg DON). All experimental groups were further divided into subgroups of 6 pigs and were inoculated with PRRSV. The remaining pigs (control) were sham-inoculated with PBS. Pigs were daily monitored for temperature, weight and clinical signs for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and tested for PRRSV RNA and for virus specific antibodies. Results of PRRSV infection showed that ingestion of diet highly contaminated with DON greatly increases the effect of PRRSV infection on weight gain, lung lesions and mortality, without increasing significantly viral replication, for which the tendency is rather directed toward a decrease of replication. These results suggest that PRRSV infection could exacerbate anorectic effect of DON, when ingested in large doses. Results also demonstrate a DON negative effect on PRRSV-specific humoral responses. This study demonstrate that high concentrations of DON naturally contaminated feed decreased the immune response against PRRSV and influenced the course of PRRSV infection in pigs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Pinilla V.,Departement de Biomedecine veterinaire | Chorfi Y.,Departement de Biomedecine veterinaire
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. Among monogastric farm animals, swine are the most susceptible to DON as it markedly reduces feed intake and decreases weight gain. DON has also been shown to increase susceptibility to viral infections; therefore the objective of this study was to investigate in vitro impact of DON on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Permissive cells were infected or not with PRRSV and were treated with increasing concentrations of DON. Cell survival and mortality were evaluated by determining the number of viable cells with a tetrazolium compound and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. Virus titration and antiviral cytokines mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative PCR. DON significantly affected the survival of noninfected cells in a dose dependent manner. However, DON concentrations between 140 and 280 significantly increased the survival of cells infected with PRRSV. These concentrations significantly decreased PRRSV replication by inducing a pro-inflammatory cytokines environment and an early activation of apoptosis, which in turn seem to interrupt viral replication. For the first time, this study showed that DON had significant effects on the survival of PRRSV infected cells and on virus replication, in a dose dependent manner. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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