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Fortier S.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Hanna H.A.,Clinique de Chirurgie Thoracique | Bernard A.,Clinique de Chirurgie Thoracique | Girard C.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation
European Journal of Anaesthesiology | Year: 2012

Context Thoracotomy is the surgical procedure that creates the greatest demand for postoperative analgesia. Objective We aimed to compare the efficacy of systemic analgesia, continuous wound catheter (CWC) analgesia and thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) for pain management after thoracotomy, assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain score and morphine consumption. Design Prospective, randomised study. Setting University teaching hospital. Inclusions from April 2007 to February 2010. Patients 153 adult patients scheduled for pulmonary surgery. Interventions All three groups received systemic analgesia with paracetamol and morphine (patient-controlled analgesia, PCA). The PCA group received systemic analgesia only. The TPVB group underwent insertion of a paravertebral catheter and the CWC group underwent CWC catheter insertion at the end of the intervention. Main outcome measures Pain score at rest as assessed by VAS. Results One hundred and fifty-three patients were included, of whom 140 were included in the final analysis (50 PCA, 44 TPVB, 46 CWC). Baseline and surgical characteristics were comparable in the three groups. VAS scores were statistically different between the TPVB and PCA groups at rest (at 0, 1, 3, 6h; P<0.0026) and after coughing (0, 1, 3, 6, 12 h; P<0.003). In recovery room care, titrated morphine doses were significantly lower (P=0.00001) in the TPVB group than in the other two. Morphine consumption was statistically lower in the TPVB group than in the PCA group at 24 h (P=0.0036). There was no difference between CWC and PCA groups in terms of VAS scores or morphine consumption. No signs of toxicity or local complications were observed. Conclusion Our results support the efficacy of TPVB for pain management after thoracotomy, at rest and after coughing. These results confirm the preference for TPVB over epidural analgesia in postthoracotomy pain care. CWC failed to decrease pain and morphine consumption and performed no better than placebo. © European Society of Anaesthesiology. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. © 2012 Copyright European Society of Anaesthesiology.

Pasquier P.,Hopital DInstruction des Armees Begin | Gayat E.,University Paris Diderot | Rackelboom T.,Departement DAnesthesie Reanimation | La Rosa J.,Departement DAnesthesie Reanimation | And 8 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Recent data from trauma patients and patients with hemorrhagic shock have suggested that an increased fresh frozen plasma:red blood cell (FFP:RBC) ratio may be of benefit in massive bleeding. We addressed this issue in cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage. METHODS:: We reviewed data from all patients diagnosed with severe postpartum hemorrhage during a 4-year period (2006-2009). Patients who were treated with sulprostone and required transfusion within 6 hours of delivery were included in the study and were divided into 2 groups according to their response to sulprostone: bleeding controlled with sulprostone alone (sulprostone group) and bleeding requiring an additional advanced interventional procedure including arterial angiographic embolization and/or surgical procedures (arterial ligation, B-Lynch suture, or hysterectomy; intervention group). The requirement or no requirement for advanced procedures constituted the primary end point of the study. Propensity scoring was used to assess the effect of a high FFP:RBC ratio on bleeding control. RESULTS:: Among 12,226 deliveries during the study period, 142 (1.1%) were complicated by severe postpartum hemorrhage. Bleeding was controlled with sulprostone alone in 90 patients (63%). Advanced interventional procedures were required for 52 patients (37%). Forty-one patients were transfused with both RBCs and FFP. The FFP:RBC ratio increased over the study period (P < 0.001), from 1:1.8 at the start to 1:1.1 at the end of the study period. After propensity score modeling (inverse probability of treatment weighting), a high FFP:RBC ratio was associated with lower odds for advanced interventional procedures (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.25 [1.07-1.47]; P = 0.008). There were no deaths, severe organ dysfunction, or other complications as a consequence of severe postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS:: In this retrospective study, a higher FFP:RBC ratio was associated with a lower requirement for advanced interventional procedures in the setting of postpartum hemorrhage. The benefits of transfusion using a higher FFP:RBC ratio should be confirmed by randomized-controlled trials. Copyright © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society.

PubMed | Institute Of Cancerologie Of Louest, Center hospitalier, Angers University Hospital Center, Clinique Saint Leonard and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine | Year: 2015

Anxiolytic premedication before non-ambulatory surgery in adult patients may have become of less importance in an era of better preoperative patient information. Moreover, an oral hypnotic given the night before surgery may be as efficient as an anxiolytic for relieving patient anxiety. These two strategies were compared for superiority to a placebo and to each other for non-inferiority.Double-blind, randomized, multicentre study versus placebo. Eight hospitals in France. June 2011 to February 2013.Non-ambulatory consecutive surgical patients undergoing general surgery.Patients received either zopiclone 7.5mg the night before surgery (n=204), or alprazolam 0.5mg the morning of surgery (n=206) and controls received placebo (n=68). Demographic data, preoperative anxiety, fear of surgery and anaesthesia, and mood were assessed the day before surgery using a visual analogue scale, the Spielberger scale and the APAIS scale. In the operating room, anxiety and comfort were assessed in addition to physiological data.Preoperative data did not differ between groups. In the operating room, anxiety and comfort were moderate and did not differ significantly between groups on a 1-10 scale (median [25-75 percentile]): zopiclone: 2 [1-4] and 2.5 [1-5]; alprazolam: 2 [1,4] and 2 [1-5]; placebo: 3 [1-5] and 3 [1-5]. The patients who were more anxious preoperatively remained so in the operating room, irrespective of the treatment received (r=0.31, p<0.001). A placebo effect was observed in 38% of patients in the corresponding group. Patients receiving zopiclone reported a significantly better sleep the night before surgery compared to other groups (median: 2 vs. 1, p<0.001).Premedication in non-ambulatory surgery is no more effective than a placebo, owing to the very moderate level of anxiety experienced by patients.

Perrotin F.,University of Tours | Fusciardi J.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Laffon M.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation
Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

There are no guidelines for the anaesthetic management of caesarean section in women with long QT syndrome; the description of myocardial ventricular repolarisation in healthy women during caesarean delivery could be a first step. The aim of this study was to describe modification of the QT interval, corrected for heart rate, and the interval between the peak and the end of the T-wave (Tpeak-Tend interval) during caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. We studied 40 patients scheduled for caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either ephedrine or phenylephrine to prevent hypotension. We injected 5 IU oxytocin after delivery. Corrected QT and Tpeak-Tend intervals were unchanged from pre-operative values after induction of spinal anaesthesia, but increased significantly after oxytocin injection. The choice of vasopressor did not affect the Tpeak-Tend interval. The risk-benefit balance of oxytocin bolus during caesarean delivery should be discussed with women with a history of long QT syndrome. © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

Dubar G.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Benhamou D.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2010

Background: Approximately 6600 cases of medical termination of pregnancy are performed in France annually, of which 78% are performed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. There are few data and no recommendations regarding anesthesia and analgesia for these late terminations. The aims of this study were to determine the role of anesthesiologists and analgesia and anesthesia practices used for late terminations in France. Methods: An electronic mailing survey was sent to all obstetric anesthesia teams working in hospitals with a prenatal diagnosis center in France. The same survey was also sent to a sample of obstetric anesthesia teams working in hospitals near Paris without a prenatal diagnosis center. Results: The response rate was 96% (45/47) for those with and 85% (23/27) for those without a prenatal diagnosis centre. Anesthesiologists at units with prenatal diagnosis participate on a regular or frequent basis on multidisciplinary prenatal committees in 36% of responding centers and are involved in 69% of centers in case of maternal health problems. Epidural or more rarely combined spinal-epidural analgesia is performed in more than 90% of cases. The block is performed after fetocide in 22% of centers and after the start of labor in 38% of centers. Sedation or general anesthesia is used at delivery in every case or at patient request in 2% and 60% of centers, respectively. Minor differences were found when comparing practices of high-volume centers with prenatal diagnosis and small volume centers without. Conclusions: French anesthesiologists do not participate routinely in the decision and planning of all late terminations. Overall, very similar analgesic and anesthetic practices are observed in high- and low- volume centers, with epidural techniques being the most common. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bousbia S.,Aix - Marseille University | Papazian L.,Aix - Marseille University | Saux P.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Forel J.-M.,Service de Reanimation Medicale | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Patients admitted to intensive care units are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms present in their environment. Exposure to these microbes may lead to the development of hospital-acquired infections that complicate the illness and may be fatal. Amoeba-associated microorganisms (AAMs) are frequently isolated from hospital water networks and are reported to be associated to cases of community and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used a multiplexed immunofluorescence assay to test for the presence of antibodies against AAMs in sera of intensive care unit (ICU) pneumonia patients and compared to patients at the admission to the ICU (controls). Our results show that some AAMs may be more frequently detected in patients who had hospital-acquired pneumonia than in controls, whereas other AAMs are ubiquitously detected. However, ICU patients seem to exhibit increasing immune response to AAMs when the ICU stay is prolonged. Moreover, concomitant antibodies responses against seven different microorganisms (5 Rhizobiales, Balneatrix alpica, and Mimivirus) were observed in the serum of patients that had a prolonged ICU stay. Conclusions/Significance: Our work partially confirms the results of previous studies, which show that ICU patients would be exposed to water amoeba-associated microorganisms, and provides information about the magnitude of AAM infection in ICU patients, especially patients that have a prolonged ICU stay. However, the incidence of this exposure on the development of pneumonia remains to assess. © 2013 Bousbia et al.

Dubost C.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Le Gouez A.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Jouffroy V.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Roger-Christoph S.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | And 3 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2012

Background: In some cases of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, brain imaging displays signs compatible with raised intracranial pressure. We aimed to estimate the incidence of raised intracranial pressure in preeclampsia using ocular ultrasonography. Methods: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements were compared in 26 preeclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. For each optic nerve, two measurements were made (transverse plane and sagittal plane) using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound linear probe. Preeclamptic patients were followed-up until postpartum day 7. Results: Median ONSD values were significantly greater in preeclamptic patients compared with healthy pregnant women at delivery (5.4 mm (95% CI: 5.2, 5.7) vs. 4.5 mm (95% CI: 4.3, 4.8), P < 0.0001). At delivery, 5/26 (19%) of preeclamptic patients had ONSD values above 5.8 mm (value associated in the literature with 95% risk of raised intracranial pressure) whereas none of the healthy pregnant group had such high ONSD values. In the preeclamptic group, ONSD decreased after the third postpartum day. ONSD values at day 7 were not significantly different from those obtained in the normal pregnancy group (P = 0.10). Conclusion: In about 20% of preeclamptic patients, ONSD reaches values compatible with intracranial pressure above 20 mmHg. Further work is needed to confirm this incidence and to better understand the diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness of this easy-to-do monitoring technique. © 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tazarourte K.,Pole Samu urgence reanimation | Cesareo E.,Pole Samu urgence reanimation | Sapir D.,Center hospitalier Sud Francilien | Atchabahian A.,New York University | And 3 more authors.
Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation | Year: 2013

The prognosis of severe trauma patients is determined by the ability of a healthcare system to provide high intensity therapeutic treatment on the field and to transport patients as quickly as possible to the structure best suited to their condition. Direct admission to a specialized center ("trauma center") reduces the mortality of the most severe trauma at 30 days and one year. Triage in a non-specialized hospital is a major risk of loss of chance and should be avoided whenever possible. Medical dispatching plays a major role in determining patient care. The establishment of a hospital care network is an important issue that is not formalized enough in France. The initial triage of severe trauma patients must be improved to avoid taking patients to hospitals that are not equipped to take care of them. For this purpose, the MGAP score can predict severity and help decide where to transport the patient. However, it does not help predict the need for urgent resuscitation procedures. Hemodynamic management is central to the care of hemorrhagic shock and severe head trauma. Transport helicopter with a physician on board has an important role to allow direct admission to a specialized center in geographical areas that are difficult to access. © 2013 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar).

Mertes P.M.,Nancy University Hospital Center | Malinovsky J.M.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Jouffroy L.,Societe Francaise dAnesthesie et de Reanimation | Aberer W.,University of Graz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

These guidelines represent the updated consensus of experts in the fi eld of immediate hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anesthesia. They provide a series of valid, widely accepted, effective, and easily teachable guidelines that are the fruit of current knowledge, research, and experience. The guidelines are based on the fi ndings of international scientifi c research and have been implemented in France under the auspices of the French Society for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (Société Française d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation [SFAR]) and the French Society of Allergology (Société Française d'Allergologie [SFA]). The members of the European Network for Drug Allergy approved the guidelines. This paper presents the most relevant clinical implications of the guidelines. © 2011 Esmon Publicidad.

Bousbia S.,IRD Montpellier | Papazian L.,Service de Reanimation Medicale | Saux P.,Departement dAnesthesie Reanimation | Forel J.M.,Service de Reanimation Medicale | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls). Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77±2.93). Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented. © 2012 Bousbia et al.

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