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Saint Paul, MN, United States

Sindelar A.J.,Dep. of Soil | Lamb J.A.,Dep. of Soil | Sheaffer C.C.,Dep. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics | Rosen C.J.,Dep. of Soil | Jung H.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2013

The harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover and cobs for cellulosic ethanol production will likely accelerate the depletion of soil N, P, K, and S, thus increasing nutrient replacement costs. Fertilizer N rate is a management variable that may influence N, P, K, and S removed by corn cellulosic materials. The effects of fertilizer N rate on grain and cellulosic biomass yields have been reported for the Upper Midwest, but no information exists regarding its effects on stover and cob nutrient removal across a range of rates in diverse environments. Experiments were conducted in eight environments in Minnesota to determine the effect of fertilizer N rate on N, P, K, and S removal by corn stover (leaves, stalks, husks, shanks, and tassels) and cobs. Removal of N, K, and S by stover and cobs generally increased as fertilizer N rate increased, although the response oft en differed among environments. Removal of P by stover and cobs decreased or did not change as fertilizer N rate increased. Harvesting 7.5 Mg ha-1 of corn stover removed on average 46, 3.5, 76, and 3.7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, and S, respectively, while harvesting 1.5 Mg ha-1 of cobs removed 6.1, 0.37, 9.5, and 0.38 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, and S, respectively. The harvest of solely corn cobs would remove 9 to 12% less N, P, K, and S, and thus deplete soil nutrient pools at slower rates compared wiThthe harvest of boThstover and cobs. © 2013 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved. Source


Belcher A.R.,Oregon State University | Graebner R.C.,Oregon State University | Cuesta-Marcos A.,Seminis Vegetable Seeds | Fisk S.,Oregon State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2015

Facultative/winter six-row malting barley is a distinct elite germplasm pool and a valuable resource that may prove useful in meeting the challenges of climate change. To preserve its diversity and make it accessible to the research and agricultural communities, the Oregon State University and University of Minnesota barley breeding programs are publicly releasing their winter/facultative six-row malt advanced lines named the TCAP FAC-WIN6 (MP-1, NSL 512632 MAP), which also function as a genomewide association studies (GWAS) panel. The FAC-WIN6 contains 296 lines—180 facultative and 116 winter—selected for disease resistance, malt quality, and general agronomic performance. To date, all lines have data for 6892 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and phenotypic data from six experiments (representing 3 yr, eight locations), including traits such as malt quality, disease resistance, nitrogen use efficiency, and winter hardiness. The FAC-WIN6 is one of 24 barley and wheat mapping panels and populations from the USDA-ARS Triticeae Coordinated Agricultural Project (TCAP). As such, all of the TCAP FAC-WIN6 genotypic and phenotypic data can be freely downloaded from the TCAP’s online database, T3 (http://triticeaetoolbox.org/barley/). Preliminary GWAS have identified novel loci for wort b-glucan, low temperature tolerance, and disease resistance. Given these results, the FAC-WIN6 is a singular resource both for future winter six-row barley breeding and for identifying and deploying genes for key barley traits in all backgrounds. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Sindelar A.J.,Dep. of Soil | Lamb J.A.,Dep. of Soil | Sheaffer C.C.,Dep. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics | Jung H.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rosen C.J.,Dep. of Soil
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2012

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover will likely play an integral role in near-term attempts to produce renewable cellulosic transportation fuels. However, little is known regarding the effect of N fertilization on biomass and ethanol yields of stover and cobs. Th e objectives were to evaluate the effect of N fertilization on stover and cob biomass and ethanol yields across a range of environments, and to determine if these biomass and ethanol yields can be maximized within N fertilization rates for grain yield optimization. Field experiments were conducted over eight diverse environments across Minnesota. Overall, stover and cob biomass and ethanol yields increased with increasing N fertilization, and agronomically optimum nitrogen rates (AONR) were identified in nearly all environments that were responsive to N fertilization. Ethanol yields for stover ranged from 2414 to 3842 L ha -1, whereas ethanol yields for cobs ranged from 513 to 906 L ha -1. When AONRs for stover and cob ethanol yields were compared to the respective AONR for grain yield, stover ethanol yield was maximized at N fertilization rates below the AONR for grain yield in four of the seven responsive environments, while cob ethanol yield was maximized at N fertilization rates below the AONR for grain yield in five of the six responsive environments. These results suggest that stover and cob ethanol yields will often be maximized when grain yield optimization is the primary goal. © 2012 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved. Source

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