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Jaguaribe, Brazil

Silva A.A.,Federal University of Vicosa | Lima C.F.,Dep. de Quimica | Queiroz M.E.L.R.,Dep. de Quimica | Franca A.C.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | D'antonino L.,Dep. de Fitotecnia
Planta Daninha | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the half-life (t1/2) for the herbicide ametryn in Red-Yellow Latosol (LVA) and Red-Yellow Ultisol (PVA) with different pH values. Thus, plastic pots coated inside with plastic film were filled with 330 g of samples from the soils under study (LVA with pH values adjusted to 4.4, 4.9 and 5.8, and PVA pH 5.9), collected in degraded pastures without herbicide application. Ametryn was applied on these soil samples at a dose of 5.0 ha L-1. Twelve hours after application, the first soil samples were extracted from the pots to determine the concentration at zero time, and every five days new samples were removed from the other pots (two per time) to determine ametryn concentration over time. Ametryn extraction from the soil matrix was performed by Solid Liquid Extraction with Partition at Low Temperature (SLE-PLT) and quantified by liquid chromatography. A biological test for indirect determination of herbicide persistence was also carried out. Results indicated that ametryn half-life (t1/2) on the soils evaluated was 26, 19, 12 and 11 days in LVA soil pH 4.4; pH 4.9; pH 5.8 and PVA pH 5.9, respectively. Both methods (chromatography or bioassay) used to evaluate ametryn persistence in soils showed that degradation of this herbicide is strongly influenced by soil pH and organic matter content. Source

Medeiros E.V.,University of Pernambuco | Viana M.G.,Mestre em Ciencia e Engineering de Petroleo | Albuquerque C.C.,State University of Rio Grande do Norte | Viana F.A.,Dep. de Quimica | Silva K.M.B.,Dep. de Biologia
Planta Daninha | Year: 2011

The fungus M. roridum is the causal agent of the myrothecium Leaf Spot disease in melon, being responsible for great losses in the production of this olericulture. This disease is difficult to control, since its agent inhabits the soil. Seeking for alternative forms of control, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of the activity of ethanolic extracts of parts of S. alata on M. roridum. The experimental design was completely randomized and distributed in a factorial scheme 4 × 6 + 1, with the first factor being parts of the plant (stalk, flower, root and green bean), and the second factor, six concentrations (0.25; 0.50, 50, 75, 250 and 500 μg mL-1), plus a control, with four repetitions per treatment. The available variables were: mycelial growth rate (MGR), mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) and area below mycelial growth curve (ABMGC). All the extracts of the S. alata parts were found to be efficient in inhibiting mycelial growth of M. roridum. The green bean ethanolic extract was the best inhibitor of the growth of M. roridum growth at the concentration of 500 μg mL-1, followed by the root and stalk extracts. Source

Silva A.A.,Federal University of Vicosa | Barbosa L.C.,Dep. de Quimica | Queiroz M.E.L.R.,Dep. de Quimica | D'Antonino L.,DFT UFV | Cruz L.S.,Federal Technological University of Parana
Planta Daninha | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to determine the coefficients of sorption and desorption of picloram in Ultisol (PVA) and Oxisol (LVA), displaying different physical and chemical characteristics. Samples of soil were collected at the 0 20 cm depth in degraded pasture areas in Viçosa-MG. Firstly, the equilibrium time between the herbicide in solution and the herbicide which was sorbed in the soil was determined by the Batch Equilibrium method. The time required was 24 hours. Sorption and desorption studies were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions; the sorption evaluation consisted in adding 10.0 mL of herbicide solutions at different concentrations to tubes containing 2.00 g of soil, with vertical rotary agitation being maintained during the pre-determined equilibrium time. After centrifugation, supernatant extract cleaning and filtration, herbicide concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at 254 nm. Desorption was evaluated using the samples in the tubes after the sorption tests. The Freundlich model was used for interpretation of the sorption process. Ultisol showed higher adsorption coefficient (Kfa) compared with Oxisol, which may be attributed to the lower pH of the soil and its higher organic matter content. Desorption process occurred in both soils; the LVA allowed greater release of the previously sorbed molecules. Source

Silva A.A.,Federal University of Vicosa | Barbosa L.C.,Dep. de Quimica | Queiroz M.E.L.R.,Dep. de Quimica | D'Antonino L.,DFT UFV | Goncalves V.A.,Federal University of Vicosa
Planta Daninha | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the solid-liquid extraction (ESL) technique for determination of picloram residues in soil samples. At the optimization stage, the optimal conditions for extraction of soil samples were determined using univariate analysis. Ratio soil/solution extraction, type and time of agitation, ionic strength and pH of extraction solution were evaluated. Based on the optimized parameters, the following method of extraction and analysis of picloram was developed: weigh 2.00 g of soil dried and sieved through a sieve mesh of 2.0 mm pore, add 20.0 mL of KCl concentration of 0.5 mol L-1, shake the bottle in the vortex for 10 seconds to form suspension and adjust to pH 7.00, with alkaline KOH 0.1 mol L-1. Homogenate the system in a shaker system for 60 minutes and then let it stand for 10 minutes. The bottles are centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3,500 rpm. After the settlement of the soil particles and cleaning of the supernatant extract, an aliquot is withdrawn and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The optimized method was validated by determining the selectivity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The ESL methodology was efficient for analysis of residues of the pesticides studied, with percentages of recovery above 90%. The limits of detection and quantification were 20.0 and 66.0 mg kg-1 soil for the PVA, and 40.0 and 132.0 mg kg-1 soil for the VLA. The coefficients of variation (CV) were equal to 2.32 and 2.69 for PVA and TH soils, respectively. The methodology resulted in low organic solvent consumption and cleaner extracts, as well as no purification steps for chromatographic analysis were required. The parameters evaluated in the validation process indicated that the ESL methodology is efficient for the extraction of picloram residues in soils, with low limits of detection and quantification. Source

Correia E.A.,Dep. de Quimica | Torres S.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Alexandre M.E.O.,IFPE | Gomes K.C.,Federal University of Paraiba | And 2 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2013

The use of geopolymers as matrix in composites with syntactical fibers have been studied and proposed in the literature. Nonetheless, for the best know of the authors, there are no researches about the use of geopolymers as matrix in composites with natural fibers. The use of natural fibers is increasing in the automotive industries. One of the problems to expand the use of natural fibers in composite materials is the low fire resistance of the classical type of polymers. In this sense, geopolymeric matrices open up horizons for this type of application. This paper studies composites with geopolymeric matrices reinforced with two types of natural fibers: sisal (Agave Sisalana) and pineapple leaf fiber (PALF-Ananas Comosus). The mechanical properties of these new composites are investigated by mechanical tests. The results confirm the increasing in the mechanical performance whenever the fibers are under traction stress. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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