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Riviere-Marichalar P.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Menard F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Thi W.F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | And 14 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Line spectra of 68 Taurus T Tauri stars were obtained with the Herschel-PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument as part of the GASPS (GAS evolution in Protoplanetary Systems) survey of protoplanetary discs. A careful examination of the linescans centred on the [OI] 63.18 μm fine-structure line unveiled a line at 63.32 μm in some of these spectra. We identify this line with the 8 18 → 7 07 transition of ortho-water. It is detected confidently (i.e., >3σ) in eight sources, i.e., ∼24% of the sub-sample with gas-rich discs. Several statistical tests were used to search for correlations with other disc and stellar parameters such as line fluxes of [O I] 6300 Å and 63.18 μm; X-ray luminosity and continuum levels at 63 μm and 850 μm. Correlations are found between the water line fluxes and the [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosity, the dust continuum, and possibly with the stellar X-ray luminosity. This is the first time that this line of warm water vapour has been detected in protoplanetary discs. We discuss its origins, in particular whether it comes from the inner disc and/or disc surface or from shocks in outflows and jets. Our analysis favours a disc origin, with the observed water vapour line produced within 2-3 AU from the central stars, where the gas temperature is of the order of 500-600 K. © 2012 ESO.

Lebreton J.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Augereau J.-C.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Thi W.-F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Roberge A.,NASA | And 23 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. HD 181327 is a young main sequence F5/F6 V star belonging to the β Pictoris moving group (age ∼12 Myr). It harbors an optically thin belt of circumstellar material at radius ∼90 AU, presumed to result from collisions in a population of unseen planetesimals. Aims. We aim to study the dust properties in the belt in details, and to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio. Methods. We obtained far-infrared photometric observations of HD 181327 with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory*, complemented by new 3.2 mm observations carried with the ATCA** array. The geometry of the belt is constrained with newly reduced HST/NICMOS scattered light images that allow the degeneracy between the disk geometry and the dust properties to be broken. We then use the radiative transfer code GRaTeR to compute a large grid of models, and we identify the grain models that best reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) through a Bayesian analysis. We attempt to detect the oxygen and ionized carbon fine-structure lines with Herschel/PACS spectroscopy, providing observables to our photochemical code ProDiMo. Results. The HST observations confirm that the dust is confined in a narrow belt. The continuum is detected with Herschel/PACS completing nicely the SED in the far-infrared. The disk is marginally resolved with both PACS and ATCA. A medium integration of the gas spectral lines only provides upper limits on the [OI] and [CII] line fluxes. We show that the HD 181327 dust disk consists of micron-sized grains of porous amorphous silicates and carbonaceous material surrounded by an important layer of ice, for a total dust mass of ∼0.05 M ⊕ (in grains up to 1 mm). We discuss evidences that the grains consists of fluffy aggregates. The upper limits on the gas atomic lines do not provide unambiguous constraints: only if the PAH abundance is high, the gas mass must be lower than ∼17 M +. Conclusions. Despite the weak constraints on the gas disk, the age of HD 181327 and the properties of the dust disk suggest that it has passed the stage of gaseous planets formation. The dust reveals a population of icy planetesimals, similar to the primitive Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, that may be a source for the future delivery of water and volatiles onto forming terrestrial planets. © 2012 ESO.

Thi W.F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Menard F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Menard F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Menard F.,University of Chile | And 12 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Context. Circumstellar disc evolution is paramount for the understanding of planet formation. The gas in protoplanetary discs large program (GASPS) aims at determining the circumstellar gas and solid mass around ~250 pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars. Aims. We aim to understand the origin and nature of the circumstellar matter orbiting 51 Oph, a young (<1 Myr) luminous B9.5 star. Methods. We obtained continuum and line observations with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory and continuum data at 1.2 mm with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The spectral energy distribution and line fluxes were modelled using the physico-chemo radiative transfer code ProDiMo to constrain the gas and solid mass of the disc around 51 Oph. The disc vertical hydrostatic structure was computed self-consistently together with the gas thermal balance. Results. We detected a strong emission by atomic oxygen [O i] at 63 microns using the Herschel Space Observatory. The [O i] emission at 145 microns, the [C ii] emission at 158 microns, the high-J CO emissions, and the warm water emissions were not detected. Continuum emission was detected at 1.2 mm. The continuum from the near- to the far-infrared and the [O i] emission are well explained by the emission from a compact (Rout = 10-15 AU) hydrostatic disc model with a gas mass of 5 × 10-6 M, 100 times that of the solid mass. However, this model fails to match the continuum millimeter flux, which hints at a cold outer disc with a mass in solids of ~10-6 M or free-free emission from a photoevaporative disc wind. This outer disc can either be devoid of gas and/or is too cold to emit in the [O i] line. A very flat extended disc model (Rout = 400 AU) with a fixed vertical structure and dust settling matches all photometric points and most of the [O i] flux. Conclusions. The observations can be explained by an extended flat disc where dust grains have settled. However, a flat gas disc cannot be reproduced by hydrostatic disc models. The low mass of the 51 Oph inner disc in gas and dust may be explained either by the fast dissipation of an initial massive disc or by a very small initial disc mass. © ESO, 2013.

Riviere-Marichalar P.,European Space Agency | Merin B.,European Space Agency | Kamp I.,University of Groningen | Eiroa C.,Dep. de Fisica Teorica | Montesinos B.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

Context. Gas plays a major role in the dynamical evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs). Its interaction with the dust is the key to our understanding planet formation later on in the protoplanetary disc stage. Studying the gas content is therefore a crucial step towards understanding YSO and planet formation. Such a study can be made through spectroscopic observations of emission lines in the far-infrared, where some of the most important gas coolants emit, such as the [OI] 3P1 → 3P2 transition at 63.18 μm. Aims. We provide a compilation of observations of far-IR lines in 362 YSOs covering all evolutionary stages, from Class 0 to Class III with debris discs. In the present paper we focus on [OI] and o-H2O emission at 63 μm. Methods. We retrieved all the available Herschel-PACS spectroscopic observations at 63 μm that used the dominant observing mode, the chop-nod technique. We provide measurements of line fluxes for the [OI] 3P1 → 3P2 and o-H2O808 → 717 transitions at 63 μm computed using different methods. Taking advantage of the PACS IFU, we checked for spatially extended emission and also studied multiple dynamical components in line emission. Results. The final compilation consists of line and continuum fluxes at 63 μm for a total of 362 young stellar objects (YSOs). We detect [OI] line emission at 63 μm in 194 sources out of 362, and line absorption in another five sources. o-H2O was detected in 42 sources. We find evidence of extended [OI] emission in 77 sources, and detect 3σ residual emission in 71 of them. The number of sources showing extended emission decays from Class 0 to Class II. We also searched for different components contributing to the line emission, and found evidence for multiple components in 30 sources. We explored correlations between line emission and continuum emission and found a clear correlation between WISE fluxes from 4.6 to 22 μm and [OI] line emission. We conclude that the observed emission is typically a combination of disc, envelope and jet emission. © ESO 2016.

Thi W.-F.,Joseph Fourier University | Menard F.,Joseph Fourier University | Meeus G.,Dep. de Fisica Teorica | Martin-Zaidi C.,Joseph Fourier University | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Despite its importance in the thermal balance of the gas and in the determination of primeval planetary atmospheres, the chemistry in protoplanetary discs remains poorly constrained with only a handful of detected species. We observed the emission from the disc around the Herbig Be star HD 100546 with the PACS instrument in the spectroscopic mode on board the Herschel Space Telescope as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) programme and used archival data from the DIGIT programme to search for the rotational emission of CH+. We detected in both datasets an emission line centred at 72.16 μm that most likely corresponds to the J = 5-4 rotational emission of CH +. The J = 3-2 and 6-5 transitions are also detected albeit with lower confidence. Other CH+ rotational lines in the PACS observations are blended with water lines. A rotational diagram analysis shows that the CH+ gas is warm at 323+2320-151 K with a mass of ∼3 × 10-14-5 × 10-12 M ȯ. We modelled the CH+ chemistry with the chemo-physical code ProDiMo using a disc density structure and grain parameters that match continuum observations and near- and mid-infrared interferometric data. The model suggests that CH+ is most abundant at the location of the disc rim at 10-13 AU from the star where the gas is warm, which is consistent with previous observations of hot CO gas emission. © 2011 ESO.

Riviere-Marichalar P.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Pinte C.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Barrado D.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Barrado D.,Calar Alto Observatory | And 17 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Context. Circumstellar discs are the places where planets form, therefore knowledge of their evolution is crucial for our understanding of planet formation. The Herschel Space Observatory is providing valuable data for studying disc systems, thanks to its sensitivity and wavelength coverage. This paper is one of several devoted to analysing and modelling Herschel-PACS observations of various young stellar associations from the GASPS open time key programme. Aims. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the gas and dust properties of circumstellar discs in the ∼10 Myr TW Hya association (TWA) using new far-infrared (IR) imaging and spectroscopy from Herschel-PACS. Methods. We obtained far-IR photometric data at 70, 100, and 160 μm of 14 TWA members; spectroscopic observations centred on the [OI] line at 63.18 μm were also obtained for 9 of the 14. The new photometry for each star was incorporated into its full spectral energy distribution. Results. We detected excess IR emission that is characteristic of circumstellar discs from five TWA members, and computed upper limits for another nine. Two TWA members (TWA 01 and TWA 04B) also show [OI] emission at 63.18 μm. Discs in the TWA association display a variety of properties, with a wide range of dust masses and inner radii, based on modified blackbody modelling. Both transitional and debris discs are found in the sample. Models for sources with a detected IR excess give dust masses in the range from ∼0.15 M• to ∼63 M •. © ESO, 2013.

Riviere-Marichalar P.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Riviere-Marichalar P.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | Barrado D.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Montesinos B.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 13 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Context. Debris discs are thought to be formed through the collisional grinding of planetesimals, and then can be considered as the outcome of planet formation. Understanding the properties of gas and dust in debris discs can help us comprehend the architecture of extrasolar planetary systems. Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared (IR) photometry and spectroscopy have provided a valuable dataset for the study of debris discs gas and dust composition. This paper is part of a series of papers devoted to the study of Herschel-PACS observations of young stellar associations. Aims. This work aims at studying the properties of discs in the beta Pictoris moving group (BPMG) through far-IR PACS observations of dust and gas. Methods. We obtained Herschel-PACS far-IR photometric observations at 70, 100, and 160 μm of 19 BPMG members, together with spectroscopic observations for four of them. These observations were centred at 63.18 μm and 157 μm, aiming to detect [OI] and [CII] emission. We incorporated the new far-IR observations in the SED of BPMG members and fitted modified blackbody models to better characterise the dust content. Results. We have detected far-IR excess emission towards nine BPMG members, including the first detection of an IR excess towards HD 29391.The star HD 172555, shows [OI] emission, while HD 181296 shows [CII] emission, expanding the short list of debris discs with a gas detection. No debris disc in BPMG is detected in both [OI] and [CII]. The discs show dust temperatures in the range 55-264 K, with low dust masses (<6.6 × 10-5 M ⊕ to 0.2 M⊕) and radii from blackbody models in the range 3 to ~82 AU. All the objects with a gas detection are early spectral type stars with a hot dust component. © 2014 ESO.

Howard C.D.,NASA | Howard C.D.,Google | Sandell G.,NASA | Vacca W.D.,NASA | And 21 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H2O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Riviere-Marichalar P.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Barrado D.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Barrado D.,Calar Alto Observatory | Augereau J.-C.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. HD 172555 is a young A7 star belonging to the β Pictoris moving group that harbours a debris disc. The Spitzer/IRS spectrum of the source showed mid-IR features such as silicates and glassy silica species, indicating the presence of a warm dust component with small grains, which places HD 172555 among the small group of debris discs with such properties. The IRS spectrum also shows a possible emission of SiO gas. Aims. We aim to study the dust distribution in the circumstellar disc of HD 172555 and to asses the presence of gas in the debris disc. Methods. As part of the GASPS open time key programme, we obtained Herschel/PACS photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source. We analysed PACS observations of HD 172555 and modelled the spectral energy distribution with a modified blackbody and the gas emission with a two-level population model with no collisional de-excitation. Results. We report for the first time the detection of [OI] atomic gas emission at 63.18 μm in the HD 172555 circumstellar disc. We detect excesses due to circumstellar dust toward HD 172555 in the three photometric bands of PACS (70, 100, and 160 μm). We derive a large dust particle mass of (4.8 ± 0.6) × 10 -4 M ⊕ and an atomic oxygen mass of 2.5 × 10 -2R 2 M ⊕, where R in AU is the separation between the star and the inner disc. Thus, most of the detected mass of the disc is in the gaseous phase. © ESO, 2012.

Walsh C.,Leiden University | Juhasz A.,Leiden University | Pinilla P.,Leiden University | Harsono D.,Leiden University | And 12 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014

HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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