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Lillehei K.O.,University of Colorado at Denver | Widdel L.,University of Colorado at Denver | Arias Astete C.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Wierman M.E.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2011

Object. The aim of this study was to report the results of a large clinical series of patients with symptomatic Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) who underwent resection by a single neurosurgeon using intraoperative alcohol cauterization, and to review any possible differences in recurrence rates in those treated with this chemically ablative technique. Methods. The authors performed a retrospective database review of 82 patients (age range 10-74 years) with symptomatic RCCs who underwent surgery between 1993 and 2009. Results. Preoperative symptoms of headaches, vision disturbances, and hormone dysfunction were observed in 68%, 35%, and 56% of patients, respectively. All 82 patients underwent treatment by a single surgeon. Surgery consisting of simple cyst drainage followed by cyst wall biopsy without vigorous cyst wall removal was performed. A subset of these patients (62) received intraoperative alcohol instillation. Perioperative complication rates were low: CSF leakage, symptomatic hyponatremia, and permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) in 2%, 5%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Headaches and vision problems improved or resolved in 71% and 83% of patients, respectively. In addition, hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, panhypopituitarism, DI, and adrenal insufficiency improved or resolved in 94%, 90%, 50%, 33%, and 67% of patients, respectively. Recurrence, as defined by enlargement of the cyst as compared with its appearance on baseline 3-month postoperative MR imaging, was noted in 10.7% of the primary surgery group. There was a trend toward increased recurrence rates in the alcohol-treated (12.9%) versus no-alcohol treatment groups (0%), although not statistically significant (p = 0.20). Conclusions. This large, single-surgeon/single-institution series of patients with symptomatic RCCs confirms that significant postoperative improvement in headaches, vision, and pituitary hormone dysfunction can be achieved via a conservative surgical approach, with low complication and recurrence rates. The data also demonstrate a limited role for alcohol cauterization in the treatment of symptomatic RCCs. Source


Reusch J.,Denver Veterans Administration Medical Center | Stewart M.W.,Glaxosmithkline | Perkins C.M.,PPD Inc | Cirkel D.T.,Glaxosmithkline | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Aims: To show that albiglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is an effective and generally safe treatment to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose hyperglycaemia is inadequately controlled with pioglitazone (with or without metformin). Methods: In this 3-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 310 adult patients on a regimen of pioglitazone (with or without metformin) were randomly assigned to receive additional treatment with albiglutide [30 mg subcutaneous (s.c.) once weekly, n = 155] or matching placebo (n = 155). The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 52 (intention-to-treat) in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The model-adjusted change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52 was significantly better with albiglutide than with placebo (-0.8%, 95% confidence interval -1.0, -0.6; p < 0.0001). Change from baseline fasting plasma glucose was -1.3 mmol/l in the albiglutide group and +0.4 mmol/l in the placebo group (p < 0.0001); a significantly higher percentage of patients reached the HbA1c goals with albiglutide (p < 0.0001), and the rate of hyperglycaemia rescue up to week 52 for albiglutide was 24.4 versus 47.7% for placebo (p < 0.0001). Albiglutide plus pioglitazone had no impact on weight, and severe hypoglycaemia was observed rarely (n = 2). With few exceptions, the results of safety assessments were similar between the groups, and most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The 52-week incidence rates for gastrointestinal AEs for albiglutide and placebo were: 31.3 and 29.8%, respectively (diarrhoea: 11.3 and 8.6%; nausea: 10.7 and 11.3%; vomiting: 4.0 and 4.0%). Conclusions: Albiglutide 30 mg administered once weekly as an add-on to pioglitazone (with or without metformin) provided effective and durable glucose lowering and was generally well tolerated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Rogers R.K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Dattilo P.B.,University of Colorado at Denver | Garcia J.A.,Denver Health Medical Center | Tsai T.,Denver Veterans Administration Medical Center | Casserly I.P.,University of Colorado at Denver
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2011

A significant proportion (∼20%) of patients with complex tibial artery occlusions cannot be treated using a conventional antegrade approach. We report our experience using the retrograde approach for the treatment of complex tibial artery occlusive disease using retrograde pedal/tibial access in 13 limbs from 12 patients. Retrograde pedal/tibial access was achieved in all cases (facilitated by surgical cutdown in one case), and procedural success was achieved in 11 of 13 limbs (85%). Based on this experience, a discussion of clinical and technical aspects of the retrograde pedal/tibial approach is provided, and a new classification for tibial artery occlusive disease is proposed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Stoneback J.W.,University of Colorado at Denver | Owens B.D.,U.S. Army | Sykes J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Athwal G.S.,University of Western Ontario | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2012

Background: There is minimal published information regarding the epidemiology of simple elbow dislocations. The purpose of this study was to report the estimated incidence of elbow dislocations in the United States, with use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database. Methods: The NEISS database includes 102 hospitals representing a random sampling of all patients presenting to U.S. emergency departments. The database was queried for elbow dislocation events. NEISS data for 2002 through 2006 were used for raw data and weighted injury counts. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by age group and sex, with use of U.S. census data. Results: One thousand and sixty-six elbow dislocations were identified, representing a weighted estimate of 36,751 acute dislocations nationwide. A calculated incidence of 5.21 dislocations per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.74 to 5.68) was noted. The highest incidence of elbow dislocations (43.5%) occurred in those who were ten to nineteen years old (6.87 per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI, 5.97 to 7.76). The incidence rate ratio for the comparison of dislocations in males with those in females was 1.02 (5.26 per 100,000 for males and 5.16 per 100,000 for females). In patients ten years or older, 474 injuries (44.5% of total dislocations) were sustained in sports. Males dislocated elbows in football, wrestling, and basketball. Females sustained elbow dislocations most frequently in gymnastics and skating activities. Conclusions: The estimated incidence of elbow dislocations in the U.S. population is 5.21 per 100,000 person-years, with use of a national database. Adolescent males are at highest risk for dislocation. Nearly half of acute elbow dislocations occurred in sports, with males at highest risk with football, and females at risk with gymnastics and skating activities. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Incorporated. Source


Khandrika L.,University of Colorado at Denver | Koul S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Meacham R.B.,University of Colorado at Denver | Koul H.K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Koul H.K.,Denver Veterans Administration Medical Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells) in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria. © 2012 Khandrika et al. Source

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