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Smitha T.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital | Sharada P.,Dental science and Research Center | Girish H.C.,Rajarajeshwari Dental College
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011

Objectives: To study and compare the changes in nuclear and cellular size, shape and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of the cells in the basal layer of oral leukoplakia and well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with normal buccal mucosa, using computer-aided image analysis in tissue sections. Study design: This was a retrospective study conducted on tissue sections on a total number of 70 cases to determine the various morphometric parameters. The data collected in this study were analyzed statistically by computing descriptive statistics, viz., percentage, mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval for mean. The difference in the control and study groups for various diagnostic variables was compared by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t-test for independent samples, wherever applicable. Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used where the data were found to be asymmetrical and the standard deviations were also different. The results were considered statistically significant whenever P < 0.05. Results: Our results were significant for the morphometric parameter, size. The values of nuclear perimeter and area, cellular perimeter and area increased gradually from the normal buccal mucosa to leukoplakia, reaching the highest value in SCC. There was statistically significant difference in the nuclear and cellular areas to differentiate between leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Two variables which were used to study the shape, "form perimeter (PE)" and "contour index (CI)", showed significant difference between normal buccal mucosa and leukoplakia and between normal buccal mucosa and SCC. The morphometric parameter, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, in our results showed an increase in leukoplakia and SCC compared to normal buccal mucosa, but the difference was not significant between leukoplakia and SCC. Conclusion: The morphometric parameter, size, was useful to differentiate between normal, potentially malignant leukoplakia and SCC. Source


Jain M.,Peoples Dental Academy | Kasetty S.,Dental science and Research Center | Khan S.,Rishiraj Dental College | Jain N.K.,Uttar Pradesh Rural Institute of Medical science and Research
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2014

Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that play an imperative role in health and disease. They have also been found to be a crucial component of peri- and intratumoral inflammatory infiltrate. Tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) has been observed and described in many tumors, including head and neck neoplasia. The process of eosinophil recruitment and its function in tumors has not been exactly defined yet. Correlation of tissue eosinophilia with prognosis has shown variable results ranging from favourable to unfavourable prognosis or even having no influence on patients outcome. Eosinophils are hypothesized to have tumor defensive as well as tumor promotive function. This dichotomous role of tissue eosinophilia with regard to prognosis has also been noted in head and neck neoplasia and premalignancies. So, the present review attempts to discuss TATE and its possible pros and cons in head and neck neoplasia. Source


Singh A.,Dental science and Research Center | Purohit B.,Dental science and Research Center
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2011

Even though dentistry was not a specialized branch of Ayurveda, it is included in its Shalakya Tantra (system of surgery). Problems such as deformities of the oral cavity, plaques and infections were managed in ancient India. Traditional medicine can treat various infectious and chronic conditions. Research has shown that all kinds of chewing sticks described in ancient Ayurveda texts have medicinal and anti-cariogenic properties. Its oil pulling (Kaval, Gandush) practice is claimed to cure about 30 systemic diseases. Amla (Emblic myrobalan), is a general rebuilder of oral health. Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus) and hawthorn berry (Crateagus oxycanthus) stabilize collagen, strengthening the gum tissue. Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabral) promotes anti-cavity action, reduces plaque, and has an antibacterial effect. Use of safe, quality products and practices should be ensured based on available evidence if traditional medicine is to be acknowledged as part of primary health care. Scientific validations of the Ayurveda dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern dental care. Publicity of these techniques using appropriate media would benefit the general population by giving more confidence in the ancient practices, thus preventing tooth decay and loss. Source


Soundarya N.,M R Ambedkar Dental College | Sharada P.,Dental science and Research Center | Prakash N.,Mgvs Kbh Dental College And Hospital | Pradeep G.L.,Mgvs Kbh Dental College And Hospital
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011

Brown tumors are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteoclastic activity and peritrabecular fibrosis due to hyperparathyroidism, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. The classical "brown tumor" is commonly seen in ends of long bones, the pelvis and ribs. Facial involvement is rare and, when present, usually involves the mandible. We report a case of 60-yearold male with a rare initial presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral maxillary brown tumors. The present case represents the third report of the bilateral maxillary brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Differential diagnosis is important for the right treatment choice. It should exclude other giant cell lesions that affect the maxillae. Source


Basha M.I.,Dental science and Research Center | Hegde R.V.,Dental science and Research Center | Sumanth S.,Dental science and Research Center | Sayyed S.,Dental science and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare surgical stripping and neodymium-doped: yttrium, aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser techniques for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on repigmentation. Background data: Gingival depigmentation is often associated with repigmentation. Recurrence of pigmentation differs according to different treatment modalities. Materials and methods: In this study, 40 maxillary sites from 20 patients presenting bilateral melanin gingival hyperpigmentation were selected. Contralateral quadrants in the maxilla were randomly assigned to receive Nd:YAG laser at 3 W, 30 mJ per pulse, with contact mode, and with a handpiece with a 300 μm diameter optic fiber and surgical stripping. Plaque index, Dummett Oral Pigmentation Index (DOPI), Hedin melanin index, size of pigmented area, time interval and extent of repigmentation, time taken for each of the procedures, assessment of pain, intraoperative bleeding index, and patient preference were compared from baseline to 6 months. Results: Comparison between Nd:YAG laser and surgical stripping group for plaque index, DOPI, Hedin index, size of pigmented area, time interval, and extent of repigmentation, at 6 months was statistically nonsignificant. Intergroup comparison for time taken, pain, and patient preference was statistically significant. Intragroup comparison for Nd:YAG laser and surgical stripping at 6 months for DOPI, Hedin index, and size of pigmented area was statistically significant. Conclusions: From the present study it can be concluded that Nd:YAG laser can be used as an alternative technique for gingival depigmentation. However, surgical stripping continues to remain as a cost-effective procedure. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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