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Dissanayake R.K.G.,University of Peradeniya | Jayasooriya P.R.,University of Peradeniya | Siriwardena D.J.L.,Dental Institute | Tilakaratne W.M.,University of Peradeniya
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology | Year: 2011

Objectives: The rare malignant odontogenic tumor, metastasizing (malignant) ameloblastoma (METAM) is reviewed with the aim of analyzing the pattern of disease and treatment of cervical metastasis based, on 2005 World Health Organization classification. Study design: A total of 65 cases, including reported cases from 1923 to 2009 compatible with the current classification and a new case are reviewed. Results: METAM occurred mostly in lungs (71%), followed by cervical lymph nodes (28%). Female-to-male ratio was 1:1.1. Primary tumor was diagnosed in 28% of cases at ages ≤20 years, and maxilla-to-mandible ratio was 1:5.2. The mean disease-free interval and survival for pulmonary metastasis were 14.37 years and 3 years, respectively, and 12.96 years and 6 years for cervical METAM. Five-year survival rate for cervical metastasis treated purely surgically was 71.43%. Conclusions: According to the available literature, neck dissection is the treatment of choice for cervical METAM. Evidence for the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is not conclusive. © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Perera R.,Dental Institute | Ekanayake L.,University of Peradeniya
Gerodontology | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the relationship between tooth loss and nutritional status in older individuals in Sri Lanka. Background: In developing countries, both the prevalence of malnutrition and oral disease are high among older individuals. Materials and methods: Four hundred and eighty subjects aged 60 years and above were selected to be included in the sample, of which 437 responded giving an overall response rate of 91%. Data were collected by means of an interviewer administered questionnaire, an oral examination and a physical examination to determine height and weight to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Results: Based on the WHO cut-offs for BMI, 62, 20 and 18% of the sample were normal, under- and over-weight, respectively. A multinomial logistic regression analysis with normal weight as the reference category revealed that missing teeth and denture status were associated with being underweight but not with being overweight. Conclusion: In older individuals, tooth loss is significantly associated with being underweight. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Johanson Z.,Natural History Museum in London | Kearsley A.,Natural History Museum in London | den Blaauwen J.,University of Amsterdam | Newman M.,Llanstadwell House | And 2 more authors.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Palaeospondylus gunni (Devonian, Scotland) is an enigmatic vertebrate, assigned to various jawless and jawed groups since its original description. New sections through the whole body allow description of a novel skeletal tissue for Palaeospondylus, comprising the entire skeleton. This tissue is mineralized cartilage and is characterized by large cell spaces embedded in minimal matrix. Bone is completely absent. Calcium phosphate mineralization has a differential topography of deposition within the cartilage that reflects a biogenic origin, despite subsequent diagenetic modification. This combination of hypertrophied cell spaces surrounded by regionalized mineralized matrix differs from all other cartilage in fossil and extant vertebrates. However, it compares most closely to gnathostome endochondral bone in early developmental stages. For example, Palaeospondylus skeletal histology differs from the Devonian agnathan Euphanerops and extant lamprey cartilage. Comparison with mineralized cartilage of armored fossil agnathans and placoderms shows the histology is not comparable to globular calcified cartilage. It also differs from that in extant chondrichthyan mineralized tesserae, which is restricted to a subperichondral zone. Amongst this diversity of calcified cartilage types we discuss various interpretations, including one that implicates tissue either in developmental stasis, before osteoblasts can deposit bone, or at a phylogenetic stage when this step has not evolved. These very different hypotheses highlight difficulties in interpreting fossil ontogenies when phylogenetic relationships are uncertain. Nevertheless, we propose that the composition of the Palaeospondylus skeleton represents a fossilized ontogenetic stage of endochondral bone, a type of bone characteristic of osteichthyan vertebrates. Crown Copyright © 2009.

Feng J.,Kings College London | Mantesso A.,Kings College London | Mantesso A.,University of Sao Paulo | Sharpe P.T.,Kings College London | Sharpe P.T.,Dental Institute
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent adult stem cell populations that have broad differentiation plasticity and immunosuppressive potential that render them of great importance in cell-based therapies. They are identified by in vitro characteristics based on their differentiation potential for clinical approaches while their biological properties and in vivo identities are often less understood. Areas covered in this review: Recent research carried out in the last decade on mesenchymal stem cell biology suggests that mesenchymal stem cells from various tissues reside in a perivascular location and these can be identified as pericytes that function as mural cells in microvessels. What the reader will gain: This review covers recent progress on understanding the link between pericytes and mesenchymal stem cells discussing specific points such as response to injury and tissue-specific functions. Take home message: Despite a long and controversial history, there is a growing acceptance that perivascular cells are connected with mesenchymal stem cells, all that is really lacking is genetic evidence to show differentiation of pericytes into different cells types. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Kidd D.P.,Royal Free Hospital | Kidd D.P.,Dental Institute
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study is to describe a case of severe and treatment-resistant neurological Behçet’s syndrome responsive to a novel therapy. This case report describes the patient who failed to respond to conventional therapy but the brain stem lesion resolved with the anti-CD20 biological agent rituximab. Neurological complications are uncommon in Behçet’s syndrome; 80 % involve a meningoencephalitis which can be severe and relapsing. This is the first report of effectiveness of rituximab in this uncommon disease. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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