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Granville, OH, United States

Denison University is a private, coeducational, and residential liberal arts college in Granville, Ohio, United States, about 30 miles east of Columbus, the state capital. Founded in 1831, it is Ohio's second-oldest liberal arts college. Denison is a member of the Five Colleges of Ohio and the Great Lakes Colleges Association, and competes in the North Coast Athletic Conference. Wikipedia.

A system of northwest striking Neoproterozoic rift basins underlies Paleozoic strata in the southern Georgina Basin of central Australia. Normal faults bounding these rift basins were selectively reactivated during the mid-Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny and are now expressed as high-angle reverse faults that invert the preexisting rift basins. Exhumed and eroded rift basin remnants are present in the hanging wall of the Oomoolmilla, Lucy Creek, Tarlton, and Toomba reverse faults, and rift basins may be preserved in the subsurface beneath the Toko Syncline and Burke River Structural Belt. Rift basin fill indicates two periods of extension: a major rift-forming episode between approximately 700 and 650 Ma (coeval with Sturtian glacial deposits) and a second episode of extension at approximately 600 Ma (coeval with Marinoan glacial deposits). This northwest striking rift system in central Australia supports results from other regions, indicating that the Neoproterozoic continental margin of Australia consisted of northwest striking rift segments offset by northeast striking transform faults. Such a configuration is geometrically incompatible with a Laurentian continental margin consisting of northeast striking rift segments and conflicts with reconstructions such as SWEAT and AUSWUS that match Australia with western Laurentia in the Rodinia supercontinent. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Motivated by recent observations that show increasing fractional linear polarization with increasing wavelength in a small number of optically thin jet features, i.e., "inverse depolarization," we present a physical model that can explain this effect and may provide a new and complementary probe of the low-energy particle population and possible helical magnetic fields in extragalactic radio jets. In our model, structural inhomogeneities in the jet magnetic field create cancellation of polarization along the line of sight. Internal Faraday rotation, which increases like wavelength squared, acts to align the polarization from the far and near sides of the jet, leading to increased polarization at longer wavelengths. Structural inhomogeneities of the right type are naturally produced in helical magnetic fields and will also appear in randomly tangled magnetic fields. We explore both alternatives and find that, for random fields, the length scale for tangling cannot be too small a fraction of the jet diameter and still be consistent with the relatively high levels of fractional polarization observed in these features. We also find that helical magnetic fields naturally produce transverse structure for inverse depolarization which may be observable even in partially resolved jets. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Matthews N.,Denison University
Journal of vision | Year: 2012

Prior reports demonstrate that simultaneity is judged less precisely in the right visual field (RVF) than in the left visual field (LVF). The present psychophysical study was conducted to provide new information about why and when (i.e., the visual information stage at which) RVF deficits arise in simultaneity judgments. In Experiment 1, participants judged either the simultaneity or the relative spatial frequency of Gabor targets in the right or left hemifield while distractors were randomly absent or present. When attention was not needed to exclude distractors, signal detection theory analyses revealed an RVF simultaneity deficit with an error pattern that implicates low RVF temporal acuity, not excessive RVF neural noise. Adding attentionally demanding distractors introduced a separate, significant RVF simultaneity deficit with error patterns that implicate the inappropriate integration of temporal asynchronies from distractor locations. Neither the distractor-independent RVF acuity deficit nor the distractor-induced RVF excessive spatial integration occurred for spatial frequency discrimination at the same retinal locations. In Experiment 2, a perceptual learning procedure significantly improved RVF simultaneity judgments. The learning was task-specific but generalized to the untrained (left) visual field and to novel retinal locations. This observation implicates the simultaneity decision as the visual information stage that sets the limit on performance.

McCall A.C.,Denison University | Fordyce J.A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

1. The optimal defence theory (ODT) of chemical defence provides a predictive framework for the distribution of anti-herbivore defences in plants. One of its predictions is that chemical defences will be allocated within a plant as a function of tissue value, where value is correlated with the cost of having that tissue removed. While many studies have examined intra-plant variation in defence chemistry, these results have rarely been compiled quantitatively to assess whether defence allocation is consistent with the prediction of ODT that more valuable tissues should be more defended than less valuable tissues. 2. We performed a formal meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies to examine the predictive utility of ODT. Specifically, we examined whether defence chemicals occur at higher concentrations in flowers versus leaves and in younger leaves compared to older leaves, under the assumption that younger leaves are more valuable than older leaves. We also examined whether the expansion status of younger leaves, nodal position of the leaves, growing conditions and chemical class of defence compounds affected the mean effect sizes. 3. We found that tissues with higher assumed value had significantly higher concentrations of defence chemicals than tissues with lower value. In particular, we found that younger leaves had higher concentrations of defence chemicals than older leaves, consistent with the predictions of ODT. The magnitude of this difference was higher in the younger leaf/older leaf comparison than in the flower/leaf comparison, with no evidence that flowers were more defended than leaves. The overall results were not affected by chemical class, young leaf expansion status, growing conditions or leaf position on the plant. 4. Synthesis. We found general agreement between the predictions of ODT and the intraplant distribution of chemical defence and conclude it is a useful model. The effect size varied depending on the tissue compared. Explicit measures of tissue value, in particular as it relates to relative fitness, are required to further validate the predictive utility and general applicability of ODT. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Lorenz W.A.,Denison University | Clote P.,Boston College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNALOCOPT runs in O(n3) time and O(n2) space. Additionally, RNALOCOPT samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNALOCOPT to show that (1) the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures - indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2) the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3) the (modified) maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNALOCOPT constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model) can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected accuracy. Web server and source code available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAlocopt/. © 2011 Lorenz, Clote.

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