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Viola S.,Dementia Assessment Unit | Viola P.,Emergency Medical Service | Buongarzone M.P.,Dementia Assessment Unit | Fiorelli L.,Dementia Assessment Unit | Litterio P.,Dementia Assessment Unit
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) parameters as potential markers for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: By means of NIRS and TCD, noninvasive and inexpensive technologies, we studied 21 patients with aMCI (10 M and 11 F, 70.2 ± 7.3. years) and 10 age matched healthy controls. Results: By means of NIRS, we found a significant mean decrease of tissue oxygen saturation of cortex microcirculation (TOI), - 27%, p< 0.0005, on the temporal-parietal cortex of both side compared to the controls. By means of TCD, we found a significant mean increase of pulsatility index (PI), p< 0.0007, of middle cerebral artery (MCA) of both side compared to the controls. Cerebrovascular risk factors were present in 81% of the aMCI patients. Conclusions: Our study reveals that the TOI reduction on the temporal-parietal cortex of both side and the increase of PI in both MCA are associated with a clinical diagnosis of aMCI patients. Significance: The reduction of TOI may be considered a new marker for aMCI, especially when combined with the increase of PI in MCA. © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Source


Viola S.,Dementia Assessment Unit | Viola P.,Emergency Medical Service | Buongarzone M.P.,Dementia Assessment Unit | Fiorelli L.,Dementia Assessment Unit | And 2 more authors.
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2014

Background and aims: A large body of evidence indicates that cerebral hypoperfusion is one of the earliest signs in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the brain reperfusion rehabilitation therapy (BRRT) would improve verbal memory and learning and/or global cognitive impairment in mild AD.Methods: Using a prospective, controlled, open-label 12-month study, we enrolled 15 patients with mild AD, who underwent BRRT program (BRRT group), and 10 age–sex-matched mild AD patients, who received no treatment (control group). At baseline (T0), and at the end of the 3 months (T3), 6 months (T6) and 12 months (T12) participants from both groups were given an evaluation, using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). In both groups by using near-infrared spectroscopy, at T0 and T12, we measured tissue oxygen saturation (TOI) on temporal–parietal and frontal cortex of both sides.Results: Ten patients from the BRRT group and 10 from the control group completed the 12-month follow-up. At the end of rehabilitation protocol, a significant improvement of MMSE and RAVLT was observed in the BRRT group as compared to control group. At T12 compared to T0, a significant improvement of TOI on frontal cortex of both sides was observed in the BRRT group as compared to control group.Conclusion: BRRT improves verbal memory-learning and global cognitive impairment which are associated with increased TOI values on frontal cortex of both sides. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013. Source

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