Delta V Experts

Melbourne, Australia

Delta V Experts

Melbourne, Australia
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | Moser A.,DSD Dr Steffan Datentechnik | Orton T.L.,Delta V Experts | Zou R.,Delta V Experts
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Current techniques that can be used to evaluate and analyse lateral impact speeds of vehicle crashes with poles/trees are based on measuring the deformation crush and using lateral crash stiffness data to estimate the impact speed. However, in some cases the stiffness data is based on broad object side impacts rather than pole impacts. Some have argued that broad object side impact tests can be used for analysing narrow object impacts; however previous authors have identified the fallacy of this premise. Publicly available side pole crash test data is evaluated in terms of crush depth impact speed and impact energy for six general vehicle types. A range of simulated pole impact tests at various speeds and impact angles were conducted using LS-Dyna and PC-Crash. Publicly available Finite Element Vehicle models of a 1996 Ford Taurus, a 1994 Chevrolet C2500 and a 1997 Geo Metro (Suzuki Swift) were used, providing relationships among impact speeds, crush depths and impact angles. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | Sandvik A.,Delta V Experts | Pok T.,Delta V Experts | And 3 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that there is an effect on impacted pedestrians' throw distance and post impact direction due to both the vehicle shape and point of impact on the vehicle. However the effect is not yet validated by means of physical tests and further research is required. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Pok T.W.P.,Delta V Experts | Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | Orton T.L.,Delta V Experts | Sandvik A.L.,Delta V Experts | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Applied Mechanics Research, Conference Proceedings - 7th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, ACAM 2012 | Year: 2012

In the area of forensic engineering, the relationship between vehicle impact speed and the severity of pedestrian injury is an area of interest. However, the research that is available tends to classify vehicle impact simplistically in terms of either minor injury or serious to fatal injury. Specific, individual classifications of injury are typically not assessed. There appears to be a lack of published data which illustrates the holistic range of injury effects using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 1 to AIS 6) with respect to vehicle impact speed. This paper reviews and extracts the published data correlating specific pedestrian injury severity with vehicle impact speeds. The body of extracted data sets have been combined to theoretically quantify pedestrian injury severity versus vehicle impact speed. The data sets are used to develop a series of curves illustrating the probability of a pedestrian sustaining an AIS 1 through to AIS 6 injury severity as a function of vehicle impact speed.


Orton T.,Delta V Experts | Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | Magennis A.,Delta V Experts | Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | And 6 more authors.
2012 IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, IECBES 2012 | Year: 2012

In the field of forensic collision reconstruction, in order to analyze the vehicular/mechanical component(s) of a dynamic impact, the overall severity of the crash event is typically assessed by quantifying the change in velocity (Delta V) of the vehicle and/or the occupant. Often, in a vehicle impact, there is forensic evidence present on the vehicle interior to indicate the location of a head-to-component impact. If a head injury has occurred as a result of the impact, there is often an inquiry made regarding the likely vehicle impact velocity required to produce a specific head injury. The 'Head Injury Criterion' (HIC) is a widely-used parameter related to the physiology of brain injury risk. Unfortunately, physical laboratory testing for the forensic calculation of an impact-specific HIC value is often not feasible. In order to forensically evaluate contributing factors and mitigation for a real-world head-to-surface impact, an assessment of the impacted surface characteristics is paradigm. Subsequent to the introduction of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 for head impact protection in vehicle interior impacts, vehicles have been designed with safety features to minimize head injury risk. However, vehicles manufactured prior to FMVSS 201 have interior structures which may be harmful if impacted at relatively low impact speeds. This paper provides thorough documentation of data associated with varying head-to-surface vehicle interior impacts. This study attempts to quantify the injury likelihood for individual interior impact observed in laboratory experiments so that values can be applied when forensically investigating impacts in the real world. © 2012 IEEE.


Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | Orton T.,Delta V Experts | Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | Pok W.P.,Delta V Experts | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

Critical speed yaw marks are commonly used in collision reconstruction to estimate vehicle speed. Research and laboratory testing have demonstrated that critical speed calculations can be used to accurately estimate vehicle speed. Thus, the principles supporting critical speed yaw analysis are fundamentally and theoretically valid and are not being challenged in this study. However, there are observed and documented limitations with respect to the appropriate application and execution of critical speed yaw analysis. This paper reviews the published research to-date and identifies limitations of critical speed yaw analysis. Examples of collision scenes are provided which quantify the inaccuracies associated with the misuse of critical speed yaw calculations. Areas for further research are identified and detailed. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.


Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | Sandvik A.,Delta V Experts | Jones C.,Delta V Experts | Pok T.,Delta V Experts | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

On the 25th December 2011 there was a hail storm in the state of Victoria, Australia, which caused approximately AU$712 million worth of damage. Some of this damage was caused to passenger vehicles. The authors conducted a number of inspections of hail damaged vehicles as a result of insurance claims being disputed or rejected on the basis that some, or all, of the alleged hail damage was not created by hail but instead created intentionally by the vehicles' owners with the use of different tools and/or objects. As a result of the inspections and investigations of potentially fraudulent claims, the authors conducted a total of 119 tests designed to replicate damage caused to vehicle body panels by impacting hail and to recreate claimed hail damage by using tools and other objects. To do so, the authors created two sizes of hail: O20mm and O40mm hail. A total of 15 impact tests were conducted with O20mm hail. The impact speed for the O20mm hail varied between 75km/h and 144km/h, with the average being 113km/h. A total of 50 impact tests were conducted with O40mm hail. The impact speed for the O40mm hail varied between 66km/h and 133km/h, with the average being 101km/h. The testing impact speeds were generally higher than the terminal velocities of the corresponding hail, so the damage observed is expected to be an over estimation of the actual damage caused by hail. The hail was projected at the test vehicle using a purpose built projectile launching device that used a sling-like mechanism to project hail in a horizontal direction at a test vehicle. The test vehicle was a white coloured 2001 model Holden Commodore with non-metallic paint. The body panels tested were: bonnet, roof, boot, all four doors, the vehicle pillars and cant rail. High speed cameras were used to determine the impact speed of the hail. Damage was photographed and recorded. In addition to impacting the vehicle with hail, a number of different tools and objects were used to recreate man-made damage. Tools and objects used were: claw hammer (conventional), welding hammer, ball-peen hammer, mason hammer, lead ball sink in a sock, golf ball in a sock, ratchet, breaker bar, crowbar and centre punch. The conducted tests revealed the following findings: 1hail impacting the vehicle body panels will not scratch or mark the paint but the paint may chip if hail impacts the vehicle near a fold or edge of a panel;2dents caused by hail will cause the light to move smoothly and continuously across the dent and the light will not break or crease;3where dents were caused by tools and objects the light will crease into multiple (two or more) distinct areas as it passes over the dent;4scratches and/or markings in the paint were identified on dents caused by tools and objects;5folds and curves on the panels did not affect the size of the dent caused to the panel; using the same tool and force to impact two different body panels (A-pillar and roof) resulted in dents that were very similar in physical appearance;6for the same impact speed the larger O40mm hail caused more damage than the O20mm hail;7For the same size hail the higher impact speed hail caused more damage. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.


Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | McIver J.,Temporal Images
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Mining operations which utilise Haul Trucks to move product or overburden have to also build and maintain a network of roads which the Haul Truck can operate on. As the development of the mine progress typically the road network changes and the maintenance of a mining road can influence the productivity of the mine and specifically the Haul Truck fuel consumption on the mine. The current class of Ultra class Haul Trucks can have a Gross mass from 450t to 590t with 60lt to 90lt engines developing 1,830kW to 2,800kW. By managing the roughness of the mining road network the rolling resistance of the Haul Trucks can be controlled/managed within a defined band and hence the mine can control part of the Haul Truck fuel consumption. Conversely constantly maintaining mine roads affects the productivity of the mine. Typically the decision to conduct maintenance work on a Haul Road is made subjectively, based on the feel of how rough the roads are getting. A system to objectively collect data from vehicles operating on the mine, process and display data on road roughness to mine staff will be detailed. The system enables objective decision to be made with respect to road maintenance and hence Haul Truck fuel consumption. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Within the exploration and resources sector some companies have required the fitment of Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS). The issues with respect to: no ROPS, internal ROPS or external ROPS are discussed. The practical experience of designing, testing, fitting external ROPS in southern Africa are detailed as well as the investigation and analysis of a number of rollover crashes of vehicles fitted with the external ROPS and injury outcomes are compared with USA rollover injury data. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Richardson S.,Delta V Experts | Hughes G.,NMVTRC CAR SAFE | Pok T.W.P.,Delta V Experts | Josevski N.,Delta V Experts | And 2 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2012

Within Australia there are seven States and two Territories, each with their own Government Authority which were until recently all using slightly different criteria to define the criteria between a Repairable Write-Off (RWO) and a Statutory Write-Off (SWO). Under the national framework for the management of Written-Off Vehicle's (WOV's) developed by the National Motor Vehicle Theft Reduction Council (NMVTRC) any collision, fire, water or weather-event damaged vehicle declared by an insurer to be a total loss must be classified to be either a SWO or RWO. Under the current Australian regime a SWO may only be sold subject to a statutory restriction that it may only be used for parts or scrap metal. A RWO may be repaired and re-registered subject to the vehicle passing specific safety and identification inspections. A set of State and Territory based technical criteria determine when a WOV should be classified an SWO. A national workshop in June 2009 resolved that the pre-2010 criteria were in need of urgent updating to better reflect contemporary vehicle design and fabrication techniques and to make the system more impervious to manipulation by criminal networks. In late 2009 the NMVTRC engaged a group of vehicle engineers to work with stakeholders to develop new criteria to meet the current and future needs. Draft criteria were circulated for comment in May 2010. Stakeholders were briefed on the draft criteria and during the comment period stakeholders made submissions. In general terms, the comments received indicated there was significant consensus about much of the proposed draft criteria and a high level of consistency in comments on those elements which required clarification or re-working. Revised draft criteria were evaluated in the field by a group of experienced assessors to evaluate and gather empirical evidence as to the likely impact of the new criteria on the prevailing ratios of RWOs to SWOs. The trial found that: Application of the draft criteria could shift up to 30% of vehicles currently classified as RWO's to SWO's (i.e. parts or scrap only); With only slight modification the revised draft criteria could effectively remove all classes of damage considered to pose a structural repair risk from the RWO category; The principle of separately counting like areas of unconnected damage in determining whether a vehicle has the three areas of damage required to render it a SWO did not have any undue or disproportionate impacts on the vehicle classification process; and. The draft criteria were generally clear, unambiguous and therefore relatively simple to apply once familiar with them. Some refinements to the final criteria were, however, proposed to ensure their consistent application and have been included in the developed SWO criteria. The developed SWO criteria which is being used in Australia to characterise vehicle damage is presented within this paper. © 2012 SAE International.

Loading Delta V Experts collaborators
Loading Delta V Experts collaborators