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Van Noort J.M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Bsibsi M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Nacken P.J.,Delta Crystallon BV | Gerritsen W.H.,VU University Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

As an extracellular protein, the small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) has anti-inflammatory effects in several mouse models of inflammation. Here, we show that these effects are associated with the ability of HSPB5 to activate an immune-regulatory response in macrophages via endosomal/phagosomal CD14 and Toll-like receptors 1 and 2. Humans, however, possess natural antibodies against HSPB5 that block receptor binding. To protect it from these antibodies, we encapsulated HSPB5 in porous PLGA microparticles. We document here size, morphology, protein loading and release characteristics of such microparticles. Apart from effectively protecting HSPB5 from neutralization, PLGA microparticles also strongly promoted macrophage targeting of HSPB via phagocytosis. As a result, HSPB5 in porous PLGA microparticles was more than 100-fold more effective in activating macrophages than free soluble protein. Yet, the immune-regulatory nature of the macrophage response, as documented here by microarray transcript profiling, remained the same. In mice developing cigarette smoke-induced COPD, HSPB5-loaded PLGA microparticles were selectively taken up by alveolar macrophages upon intratracheal administration, and significantly suppressed lung infiltration by lymphocytes and neutrophils. In contrast, 30-fold higher doses of free soluble HSPB5 remained ineffective. Our data indicate that porous HSPB5-PLGA microparticles hold considerable promise as an anti-inflammatory biomaterial for humans. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bsibsi M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Holtman I.R.,University of Groningen | Gerritsen W.H.,VU University Amsterdam | Eggen B.J.L.,University of Groningen | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

Microglial nodules are frequently observed in the normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Previously, we have shown that these clusters, which we call "preactive MS lesions," are closely associated with stressed oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths that contain markedly elevated levels of the small stress protein alpha-B-crystallin (HspB5). Here, we show that microglia in these lesions express the recently identified receptors for HspB5, that is, CD14, Toll-like receptor family 1 and 2 (TLR1 and TLR2), and several molecular markers of the microglial response to HspB5. These markers were identified by genome-wide transcript profiling of 12 primary human microglial cultures at 2 time points after exposure to HspB5. These data indicate that HspB5 activates production by microglia of an array of chemokines, immune-regulatory mediators, and a striking number of antiviral genes that are generally inducible by type I interferons. Together, our data suggest that preactive MS lesions are at least in part driven by HspB5 derived from stressed oligodendrocytes and may reflect a local attempt to restore tissue homeostasis. © 2013 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University of Groningen, VU University Amsterdam and Delta Crystallon BV
Type: | Journal: Glia | Year: 2017

The glial stress protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) is an endogenous agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 in CD14


Van Noort J.M.,TNO | Van Noort J.M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Bsibsi M.,TNO | Bsibsi M.,Delta Crystallon BV | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2010

We present the first comparative analysis of serum immunoglobulinG reactivity profiles against the full spectrum of human myelin-associated proteins in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy control subjects. In both groups, serum antibodies display a consistent and prominent reaction to αB-crystallin (CRYAB) versus other myelin proteins. As an apparently major target for the adaptive immune system in humans, CRYAB selectively accumulates in oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes, or axons in so-called preactive multiple sclerosis lesions. These are clusters of activated HLA-DR-expressing microglia in myelinated normal-appearing white matter with no obvious leukocyte infiltration. They are found in most multiple sclerosis patients at all stages of disease. In these lesion areas, CRYAB in oligodendrocytes may come directly in contact with activated HLA-DR microglia. We demonstrate that CRYAB activates innate responses bymicroglia by stimulating the secretion of leukocyte-recruiting factors, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 17, CCL5, and CCL1, and immune-regulatory cytokines such as interleukin 10, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin 13. Together, these data suggest that CRYAB accumulation in preactive lesions may be part of a reversible reparative local response that involves both oligodendrocytes and microglia. At the same time, however, accumulated CRYAB may represent a major target for adaptive immune responses that could contribute to progression of preactive lesions to a stage of demyelination. © 2010 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.


PubMed | Deltacrystallon BV, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, VU University Amsterdam, Queen Mary, University of London and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of immunology | Year: 2016

Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein released during inflammation, aids phagocytic clearance of pathogens and apoptotic cells, and plays diverse immunoregulatory roles in tissue injury. In neuroinflammatory diseases, like MS, resident microglia could become activated by endogenous agonists for Toll like receptors (TLRs). Previously we showed a strong TLR2-mediated induction of PTX3 in cultured human microglia and macrophages by HspB5, which accumulates in glia during MS. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of HspB5, we examined the contribution of PTX3 to these effects in MS and its animal model EAE. Our data indicate that TLR engagement effectively induces PTX3 expression in human microglia, and that such expression is readily detectable in MS lesions. Enhanced PTX3 expression is prominently expressed in microglia in preactive MS lesions, and in microglia/macrophages engaged in myelin phagocytosis in actively demyelinating lesions. Yet, we did not detect PTX3 in cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. PTX3 expression is also elevated in spinal cords during chronic relapsing EAE in Biozzi ABH mice, but the EAE severity and time course in PTX3-deficient mice did not differ from WT mice. Moreover, systemic PTX3 administration did not alter the disease onset or severity. Our findings reveal local functions of PTX3 during neuroinflammation in facilitating myelin phagocytosis, but do not point to a role for PTX3 in controlling the development of autoimmune neuroinflammation.


van Noort J.M.,Delta Crystallon BV | van den Elsen P.J.,VU University Amsterdam | van den Elsen P.J.,Leiden University | van Horssen J.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2011

For the development of novel central nervous system (CNS) drugs to promote neuroprotection, it is helpful to gain a better understanding of natural neuroprotective phenomena. Microglia play key roles in endogenous neuroprotective pathways and their activation is a common theme in several neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, while it is widely appreciated that activated microglia can have neuroprotective qualities, their contribution to tissue destruction and neurodegeneration within the CNS is equally obvious. This apparent duality in microglial functions renders it difficult to determine whether microglial activation under certain conditions is something to counteract, or to support. Also, it is far from clear which microglial functions support neuroprotection, and which support destruction. Here, we review evidence that a special phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients offers a unique possibility to study polarized protective functions of microglia. During MS, small clusters of activated microglia frequently emerge throughout normalappearing white matter. Several lines of evidence suggest that these clusters, which are referred to as preactive MS lesions, represent a reversible first stage in the development of inflammatory, demyelinating MS lesions. Progression onto this final destructive stage may occur but, importantly, does not seem to be inevitable. Instead, resolution of preactive lesions is probably the rule rather than the exception. For as long as preactive lesions remain non-infiltrated by peripheral lymphocytes, they reflect a local neuroprotective and reparative response. A critical factor in the emergence of preactive lesions is oligodendrocyte stress, which leads to accumulation of factors such as small heat shock proteins. At least some of these can induce an immune-regulatory response in neighboring microglia. A closer understanding of the molecular make-up of preactive MS lesions, of the signals which cause microglial activation, and of the protective mediators produced by microglia in this context, will help uncover novel clues for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies with relevance for clinical applications well beyond the field of MS alone. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.


Van Noort J.M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Bsibsi M.,Delta Crystallon BV | Nacken P.,Delta Crystallon BV | Gerritsen W.H.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

There is now compelling evidence that members of the family of small heat shock proteins (HSP) can be secreted by a variety of different types of cells. Secretion of small HSP may at times represent altruistic delivery of supporting and stabilizing factors from one cell to another. A probably more general effect of extracellular small HSP, however, is exerted by their ability to activate macrophages and macrophage-like cells. When doing so, small HSP induce an immune-regulatory state of activation, stimulating macrophages to suppress inflammation. For this reason, small HSP deserve consideration as broadly applicable therapeutic agents for inflammatory disorders. In one particular case, however, adaptive immune responses to the small HSP itself may subvert the protective quality of the innate immune response it triggers. This situation only applies to alpha B-crystallin, and is unique for humans as well. In this special case, local concentrations of alpha B-crystallin determine the balance between protective innate responses and destructive adaptive responses, the latter of which are held responsible for the development of multiple sclerosis lesions. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Small HSPs in physiology and pathology. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Peferoen L.,VU University Amsterdam | Kipp M.,RWTH Aachen | van der Valk P.,VU University Amsterdam | van Noort J.M.,Delta Crystallon BV | And 2 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2014

Communication between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) is exemplified by cross-talk between glia and neurons shown to be essential for maintaining homeostasis. While microglia are actively modulated by neurons in the healthy brain, little is known about the cross-talk between oligodendrocytes and microglia. Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the CNS, are essential for the propagation of action potentials along axons, and additionally serve to support neurons by producing neurotrophic factors. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes are thought to be the victims. Here, we review evidence that oligodendrocytes also have strong immune functions, express a wide variety of innate immune receptors, and produce and respond to chemokines and cytokines that modulate immune responses in the CNS. We also review evidence that during stress events in the brain, oligodendrocytes can trigger a cascade of protective and regenerative responses, in addition to responses that elicit progressive neurodegeneration. Knowledge of the cross-talk between microglia and oligodendrocytes may continue to uncover novel pathways of immune regulation in the brain that could be further exploited to control neuroinflammation and degeneration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Amor S.,VU University Amsterdam | Amor S.,Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science | Peferoen L.A.N.,VU University Amsterdam | Vogel D.Y.S.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2014

Neurodegeneration, the progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), is the major cause of cognitive and motor dysfunction. While neuronal degeneration is well-known in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, it is also observed in neurotrophic infections, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, neoplastic disorders, prion diseases, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders and genetic disorders. A common link between these diseases is chronic activation of innate immune responses including those mediated by microglia, the resident CNS macrophages. Such activation can trigger neurotoxic pathways leading to progressive degeneration. Yet, microglia are also crucial for controlling inflammatory processes, and repair and regeneration. The adaptive immune response is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases contributing to tissue damage, but also plays important roles in resolving inflammation and mediating neuroprotection and repair. The growing awareness that the immune system is inextricably involved in mediating damage as well as regeneration and repair in neurodegenerative disorders, has prompted novel approaches to modulate the immune system, although it remains whether these approaches can be used in humans. Additional factors in humans include ageing and exposure to environmental factors such as systemic infections that provide additional clues that may be human specific and therefore difficult to translate from animal models. Nevertheless, a better understanding of how immune responses are involved in neuronal damage and regeneration, as reviewed here, will be essential to develop effective therapies to improve quality of life, and mitigate the personal, economic and social impact of these diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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