Memphis, TN, United States
Memphis, TN, United States

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Eggleston G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Andrzejewski B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cole M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dalley C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015

Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar biomass feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabilization and concentration of juice into syrup for long-term storage, year-round supply, efficient transport, and acceptable end-product yields. Pilot plant studies were conducted to evaluate the storage (up to 160 days at ~25 °C) of raw and clarified syrups from sweet sorghum hybrid and commercial cultivars. Clarified syrups were manufactured after clarification of juice (80 °C; 5 ppm polyanionic flocculant) at various target limed pHs (6.1-6.8) followed by vacuum evaporation. All 70 Brix raw syrups were susceptible to microbial deterioration on the surface during storage, and raw syrups were more susceptible than clarified syrups. Surface deterioration was mainly fungal since bacterial growth was inhibited by low water activity. Juice clarification reduced the loss of fermentable sugars during the evaporation stage and, generally, allowed for better storage of syrup up to 80 days. Target clarification pH had a dramatic effect on the storage of clarified 70 Brix syrups with more acidic pHs reducing fungal deterioration. Further studies are now warranted on the post-evaporation pH adjustment of raw and clarified syrups to <6.1 for long-term storage. Inexpensive soy bean oil and candellila wax showed promise as surface sealants to preserve syrups for at least 80 days of storage at ~25 °C, also warranting further investigation. © 2015.

Eggleston G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | DeLucca A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sklanka S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dalley C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Sweet sorghum juice is extremely vulnerable to microbial spoilage during storage because of its high water activity and rich sugar medium, and this represents a major technical challenge. The effects of clarification (80°C; limed to pH 6.5; 5ppm polyanionic flocculant) and UV-C irradiation were investigated as stabilization and preservation treatments for juices stored at ambient temperature (~25°C). Juices were extracted by roller press from various sweet sorghum cultivars grown in humid and dry environments in Louisiana and Tennessee, respectively. Raw juices contained up to 109 total bacteria cfu/mL. Initial results indicated that pilot plant clarified juice was considerably more stable than raw or UV-C irradiated (15W lamp aquaculture system at ~25°C) juice, irrespective of cultivar. Further experiments were undertaken to elucidate if heating (80°C; 30min) or impurity precipitation or both of these components of the clarification process were responsible for improved juice stability. Clarification or heating both achieved 3- to 4-log reductions of lactic acid bacteria in juices to negligible levels (<150cfu/mL), and also significantly (P<0.05) reduced total bacterial counts. Juice heating gave similar results as the whole clarification process up to ~24h storage, but became slightly worse between 24-28h. Overall, clarified or heated (80°C; 30min) juice stored at 25°C can be stored for at least 48h before unacceptable spoilage occurs. Fingerprint ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) oligosaccharide profiles can be used to monitor sweet sorghum juice spoilage >100cfu/mL lactic acid bacteria. © 2014.

Delta BioRenewables LLC | Date: 2015-10-31

Molasses syrup; Table syrup.

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