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Barrowes B.E.,USACE ERDC CRREL | Barrowes B.E.,Hanover College | Shubitidze F.,Hanover College | Grzegorczyk T.M.,Delpsi LLC | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Pedemis (PortablE Decoupled Electromagnetic Induction Sensor) is a time-domain handheld electromagnetic induction (EMI) instrument with the intended purpose of improving the detection and classification of UneXploded Ordnance (UXO). Pedemis sports nine coplanar transmitters (the Tx assembly) and nine triaxial receivers held in a fixed geometry with respect to each other (the Rx assembly) but with that Rx assembly physically decoupled from the Tx assembly allowing flexible data acquisition modes and deployment options. The data acquisition (DAQ) electronics consists of the National Instruments (NI) cRIO platform which is much lighter and more energy efficient that prior DAQ platforms. Pedemis has successfully acquired initial data, and inversion of the data acquired during these initial tests has yielded satisfactory polarizabilities of a spherical target. In addition, precise positioning of the Rx assembly has been achieved via position inversion algorithms based solely on the data acquired from the receivers during the "on-time" of the primary field. Pedemis has been designed to be a flexible yet user friendly EMI instrument that can survey, detect and classify targets in a one pass solution. In this paper, the Pedemis instrument is introduced along with its operation protocols, initial data results, and current status. © 2012 SPIE. Source

Grzegorczyk T.M.,Delpsi LLC | Barrowes B.E.,U.S. Army | Shubitidze F.,Dartmouth College | Fernandez J.P.,Dartmouth College | O'Neill K.,U.S. Army
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

The simultaneous detection and identification of multiple targets using electromagnetic induction (EMI) time-domain sensors remains a challenge due to the fast decay of the magnetic field with sensor-target distance. For example, the signal from a weak yet shallow target or clutter item can overshadow that from a much larger yet deeper unexploded ordnance (UXO), potentially resulting in erroneous localization and/or identification. We propose, in this paper, a method based on the GaussNewton algorithm for the inversion of multiple targets within the field of view of sensors operating at EMI frequencies (tens of hertz to a few hundred kilohertz). In order to minimize the number of unknowns to invert for, the polarizability tensor is written as a time-independent orientation matrix multiplied by a time-dependent diagonal intrinsic polarizability tensor. Similarly, position is supposed to be time independent so that both position and orientation angles are inverted only once using all time channels collected by the instrument. Moreover, using the dipole approximation, we are able to compute the Jacobian in closed form for instruments with either square or circular primary field coils, thus contributing to the speed of the algorithm. Validating results are shown based on the measurement data collected with two EMI sensors on various types of UXO. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Grzegorczyk T.M.,Delpsi LLC | Shubitidze F.,Dartmouth College | O'Neill K.,U.S. Army | Barrowes B.E.,Dartmouth College | Barrowes B.E.,U.S. Army
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2012

Detection and classification of unexploded ordnance based on electromagnetic induction have made tremendous progress over the last few years, to the point that not only more realistic terrains are being considered but also more realistic questions - such as when to stop digging - are being posed. Answering such questions would be easier if it were somehow possible to . see under the surface. In this work we propose a method that, within the limitations on resolution imposed in the available range of frequencies, generates subsurface images from which the positions, relative strengths, and number of targets can be read off at a glance. The method seeds the subsurface with multiple dipoles at known locations that contribute collectively but independently to the measured magnetic field. The polarizabilities of the dipoles are simultaneously updated in a process that seeks to minimize the mismatch between computed and measured fields over a grid. In order to force the polarizabilities to be positive we use their square roots as optimization variables, which makes the problem nonlinear. The iterative update process guided by a Jacobian matrix discards or selects dipoles based on their influence on the measured field. Preliminary investigations indicate a fast convergence rate and the ability of the algorithm to locate multiple targets based on data from various state-of-the-art electromagnetic induction sensors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Fernandez J.P.,Unit 301 | Barrowes B.E.,U.S. Army | Grzegorczyk T.M.,Delpsi LLC | Lhomme N.,Sky Research, Inc. | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2011

The identification and discrimination of unexploded ordnance using low-frequency electromagnetic induction is an expensive and difficult process, typically beset by low data diversity and high positioning uncertainty. In this paper, we present the Man-Portable Vector (MPV) sensor, a new time-domain instrument designed to remedy these shortcomings by measuring all three vector components of the secondary magnetic field at five distinct points around each transmitter location. The MPV also has a laser positioning system that can give its location with millimeter precision. After describing the instrument in detail, we study its performance in various sets of measurements, using the tensor dipole model to analyze the data. We find that the sensor can detect deeply buried targets and identify some standard ordnance items. It can also resolve separate targets in cases where two objects share the field of view and produce overlapping signals. A new incarnation of the MPV, the MPV-II, is in an advanced stage of development. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Kemp B.A.,Arkansas State University | Grzegorczyk T.M.,Delpsi LLC
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

By considering a perfect reflector submerged in a dielectric fluid, we show that the Minkowski formulation describes the optical momentum transfer to submerged objects. This result is required by global energy conservation, regardless of the phase of the reflected wave. While the electromagnetic pressure on a submerged reflector can vary with phase of the mirror reflection coefficient between twice the Abraham momentum and twice the Minkowski momentum, the Minkowski momentum is always restored due to the additional pressure on the dielectric surface. This analysis also gives further evidence for use of the Minkowski stress tensor at the boundary of a dielectric interface, which has been the subject of a long-standing debate in physics and the source of uncertainty in the modeling of optical forces on submerged particles. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Source

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