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Weimar, Germany

Ruecker P.,DEKRA Automobil GmbH | Berg A.,Technology Center | Domsch C.,BMW AG
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

Secondary safety systems to protect occupants have attained a very high level over the past decades. Further improvements are still possible, but increasingly minor progress is only to be had with a high degree of effort. Today, integrated safety is the key aspect to improve overall safety in manifold accident situations. This is already implemented in the development of new cars. But so far, the testing and assessment of new cars still involves using tests which do not take into account the significant additional potential of integrated safety measures. An example is given with automatic pre-crash braking functions, which are newly available in state-of-the-art cars. Using reliable information on an imminent crash, such measures act already in the pre-crash phase and can result in a significantly high decrease of the accident outcomes. Such preventive measures are the key to a further substantial reduction of the figures of crash victims on our roads. This paper aims to illustrate the pre-crash braking approach for cars of the BMW 5 series. These measures can contribute to lessening the consequences of a crash by creating an optimal interplay of measures in the fields of primary and secondary safety. Already available are driver assistant systems that warn the driver of an imminent front-to-rear-end crash. The next step is to support his reactions or, if he fails to react sufficiently, to even initiate an automatic braking when the crash becomes unavoidable. Automatic pre-crash braking can, in an ideal situation, fully prevent a crash or significantly reduce the impact speed and thus the impact energy (which directly influences the severity of the accident). If a vehicle is being braked in the pre-crash phase, the occupants are pre-stressed by the deceleration. This is true for pre-crash braking activated by the driver as well as for automatic pre-crash braking. The information available about the imminent crash can be used to activate reversible belt tensioners and other secondary safety systems in the vehicle just before the impact. The pre-crash deceleration also causes the front of the vehicle to dip. Conventional crash tests are unbraked. Such tests do not take into consideration specific impacts of pre-crash braking. As a consequence, the influences of dipping of the vehicle front and possible pre-crash displacements of the occupants are not recorded in the test results. Furthermore, a reproducible assessment of the additional benefit of vehicle safety systems, which prepare the occupants for the imminent impact, is not possible. In order to demonstrate some prototype functions of automatic pre-crash braking and to investigate the differences during crashes as a consequence of altered occupant positions as well as of altered force applications at the vehicle front, DEKRA teamed up with BMW to carry out joint crash tests with the latest BMW 5 series vehicles. The vehicles involved braked automatically from 64 km/h initial test velocity down to different impact velocities. The tests were run by the new intelligent drive system at the DEKRA crash test facility. This required several modifications to be made to the test facility as well as to the vehicle. The paper will describe and discuss some relevant details and results of the crash tests. In addition, the possible benefits of such systems to real-world accidents will also be considered. The tests supplemented the work of the vFSS (advanced Forward-looking Safety Systems) Working Group. Copyright © 2013 SAE International. Source


0,2 % of 54 Mio. driver's license holders have to pass a driver's fitness assessment ordered by the Office of driver licenses. There are no statistics about the medical assessment alone. The system of the driver's fitness assessment is of high public and private interest regarding the objective and subjective importance of the driver's license and therefore the assessment of the physical and mental aptitude. The medical and psychological fitness assessment is a chance for the person concerned to sanitize from the official doubts. The high quality of the driver's fitness assessment is achieved through periodic expert opinions (former: accreditation) by the Federal Highway Research Institute. A holistic view of human was introduced with the publication of "Guidelines of driver's fitness assessment" taking different possibilities of compensation (technical, medical and behavioral) - in terms of an orientation towards resources and relief- into account. The introduction of the "Beurteilungskriterien" (assessment criteria) helped to entail the examination of continuous improvements and the change of the classical diagnostics of traits towards behavioral diagnostics of processes. The methods of driver's fitness assessment (i. e. exploration, toxicology and psychological performance tests) and their cut off values are in accordance with the status quo of science and technology. Finally, some proposals for reform with the potential to improve the driver's fitness assessment and single methods are introduced. After each procedure (i. e. rehabilitation, courses, hospital stay, coaching) an individual assessment ought to examine if the procedure helped the person concerned. Sanctions and restrictions shall become more important from a medical, psychological and technical (i.e. interlock) point of view. Consequently, it is necessary to change the indication for a driver's fitness assessment for drunk driving. The current BAC limit must be lowered to 0,11 %. Source


Legner C.,University of Lausanne | Urbach N.,University of Bayreuth | Nolte C.,DEKRA Automobil GmbH
Information and Management | Year: 2016

Although mobile technologies are increasingly used for business purposes, many companies have found it difficult to successfully implement them. Not only do the rapid technological changes increase the risks of companies' investments into mobile technologies, but many such applications have also failed to gain user acceptance. In contrast to the consumer domain, there are very few empirical studies of mobile applications' effectiveness from the perspectives of professional end users. Furthermore, designing mobile business applications has become an increasingly iterative and incremental activity, and ex post evaluations by actual users can provide crucial feedback to an iterative design process. In this study, we seek to contribute to establishing a design cycle that closely links the building and the evaluation of mobile business applications. Our objectives are to (1) gain a better understanding of mobile business applications' success by means of ex post evaluations from end users, and to (2) leverage these empirical insights to inform the design of mobile business applications. We conducted the study in collaboration with DEKRA Automotive, which offers expert services in the automotive sector with experience in mobile business applications. Our primary contribution is a systematic approach to using ex post evaluation as input for the iterative design of mobile business applications. We suggest an adapted version of the D&M information system (IS) Success Model, which has process quality as an additional construct, as a basis for ex post evaluations of a mobile business application by its end users. Furthermore, we illustrate how a performance-based analysis of the empirical results enables one to derive priorities and recommendations for future design iterations. Our results reveal that system quality and process quality are the main determinants of individual benefits of using mobile business applications. Our findings thus contradict other studies that identify information quality as a significant motivator of (consumer-oriented) mobile data services. We conclude that a mobile business application's design should focus on process quality, emphasizing functional support for operational tasks in a specific work context while ensuring system quality, which is largely affected by technology platform choices. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Berg M.,Institute For Testentwicklung Und Anwendung Itea | Glaser D.,DEKRA Automobil GmbH | Schubert W.,University of Cologne
Blutalkohol | Year: 2010

In a sample of persons with alcohol offences in road traffic a serious decrease of performance from selective to divides attention could be observed, suggesting that a decrease of performance concerning attentional functions is given at all. The difference is significant on the 5 % level. This finding can be explained by a kind of "tunnel view" concerning not perceptual but attentional functions. It is possible to aim the focus of attention at a single combination of object features but not to integrate a second feature into the set of responses by a given sequence. Source


Dettling A.,University of Heidelberg | Cakeljic D.,DEKRA Automobil GmbH | Gut T.,DEKRA Automobil GmbH | Haffner H.T.,University of Heidelberg
Blutalkohol | Year: 2010

The investigation with a driving simulator involved 12 healthy male volunteers between 21 and 27 years of age. The driving simulator was equipped with a pendulum. The volunteers had to cover a defined distance, both in a sober state and in two different degrees of alcoholisation (0.4 ‰ und 0.9 ‰). The pendulum was activated with deviation angles of around 30°, 60° and 90°. False negative reactions, i.e. the failure to respond to a specific stimulus, and false positive reactions, i.e. the pressing of the reaction button when there was no impact of the pendulum on the seat, were observed. A significant correlation was observed between the occurrence of false negative and false positive mistakes and the degree of alcoholisation. The separate evaluation of the few false negative and false positive reactions did not reveal a significant correlation. Source

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