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Sopur, India

War A.R.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | War A.R.,Entomology Research Institute | Sharma H.C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Paulraj M.G.,Entomology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2011

Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from the roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pest management. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

War A.R.,Entomology Research Institute | Paulraj M.G.,Entomology Research Institute | War M.Y.,Degree College | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2011

Salicylic acid (Sa), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. a series of experiments were performed to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of Sa concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (h 2O 2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to Sa at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, h 2O 2 and proteins. Plants treated with Sa at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms.These results suggest that Sa at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

War A.R.,Entomology Research Institute | Paulraj M.G.,Entomology Research Institute | War M.Y.,Degree College | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2011

Induced defense was studied in three groundnut genotypes ICGV 86699 (resistant), NCAc 343 (resistant) and TMV 2 (susceptible) in response to Spodoptera litura infestation and jasmonic acid (JA) application. The activity of the oxidative enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and the amounts of other host plant defense components [total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content] were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in JA pretreated (one day before) plants and infested with S. litura, and JA application and simultaneous infestation with S. litura to understand the defense response of groundnut genotypes against S. litura damage. Data on plant damage, larval survival and larval weights were also recorded. There was a rapid increase in the activities of POD and PPO and in the quantities of total phenols, H 2O 2, MDA and protein content in the JA pretreated + S. litura infested plants. All the three genotypes showed quick response to JA application and S. litura infestation by increasing the defensive compounds. Among all the genotypes, higher induction was recorded in ICGV 86699 in most of the parameters. Reduced plant damage, low larval survival and larval weights were observed in JA pretreated plants. It suggests that pretreatment with elicitors, such as JA could provide more opportunity for plant defense against herbivores. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

Afaq S.,Degree College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

The phospholipids are the principle compound of cell membrane and are essential for all vital cell processes. They are most important membrane building compound and are amphophilic molecules with unique physiochemical properties having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts to the molecules. The Phospholipid also plays a significant role in intracellular signaling. The phospholipid shows decreasing trend in present investigation after exposure to Bismarck brown and acid leather brown at different time intervals and at all three concentrations. However, the effect was more in acid leather brown exposure. Lipid peroxidation involves the direct reaction of oxygen and lipid to form free radical intermediate and to produce semi stable peroxide. Pathological free radical mechanism leading to lipid peroxidation and degradation of phospholipid with loss of membrane integrity are currently considered to be an important factor.

Suthari S.,Kakatiya University | Sreeramulu N.,Kakatiya University | Omkar K.,Degree College | Reddy C.S.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | Raju V.S.,Kakatiya University
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Differences in the traditional botanical knowledge of Koya communities inhabiting Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary (Warangal North Forest Division) are investigated. Eighteen villages (16 within the wildlife sanctuary and two outside it) were selected to test the null hypothesis that there exist no cognitive differences among the ethnic inhabitants in their ability to recognize the plants and recall the vernacular names and medicinal uses since they are recipients of the same dry deciduous forest ecosystem services. The Koyas were found to use as medicine 237 species in 66 angiosperm families. Analyses of data gathered from villagers showed that there is significant intracultural diversity in terms of taxonomic groups and growth forms in regard to utilizing the proximate plant resource for their primary healthcare and disease treatment of pets.

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