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Defiance, OH, United States

Defiance College, located in Defiance, Ohio, USA, is an independent, co-educational liberal arts college affiliated with the United Church of Christ. The campus includes eighteen buildings and access to the 200-acre Thoreau Wildlife Sanctuary.Defiance College advertises its national recognition for its programs of service and engagement. Defiance College is also in Colleges With a Conscience from Princeton Review and Campus Compact. In 2013 was a President’s Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll Finalist.Its mission statement emphasizes "experience of engagement". It hosts the McMaster School for Advancing Humanity, which permits students to participate in projects "to improve the human condition". It also has a campus/community initiative, its "Service Leadership Program" and an honors curriculum, the Carolyn M. Small Honors Program and the Hench Autism Studies Program, which focuses on late adolescence and early adulthood. Wikipedia.


Strassman B.K.,The College of New Jersey | Schirmer B.,Defiance College
Remedial and Special Education | Year: 2013

The purpose of this review of the research on writing instruction with deaf students was to determine which findings offer evidence for effective practice. The authors used a framework of critical elements developed from research on hearing writers as a set of findings to which they compared the findings with deaf writers. They identified 16 studies of writing instruction over the past 25 years. Research on approaches for teaching writing to hearing students fell into four categories: teaching the process approach, instruction on characteristics of quality writing, writing for content learning, and feedback. Although all of the studies on teaching writing to deaf students fell into one of these categories, outcomes were equivocal and the evidence for practice is at best promising. They conclude that rigorous research is acutely needed so that writing instruction can be better informed by research findings. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.


Munawar M.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Fitzpatrick M.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Munawar I.F.,Plankton Canada | Niblock H.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Kane D.,Defiance College
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management | Year: 2012

Large freshwater and marine ecosystems suffer from a variety of anthropogenic stressors which include eutrophication, chemical contamination, coastal degradation and overexploitation of fisheries to name only a few. Attempts at remediation are often confounded by the multitude of local, regional, national and international governments and agencies that exercise jurisdiction over smaller parts of these ecosystems. In the North American Great Lakes, there exists a (nearly) 40 year track record for international cooperation in managing anthropogenic stressors that emphasizes sound ecosystem based science. Among these efforts was the designation of 42 severely polluted coastal regions as Areas of Concern (AoCs) which were deemed to have at least 1 of 14 possible Beneficial Use Impairments. The Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, is one AoC with 10 listed impairments. We used a "battery of tests" strategy to assess the health of the bay with respect to the impairments of "eutrophication or undesirable algae" and "degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities" in the bay. This strategy integrates structural, functional and chemical parameters into established ecosystem health models. The results of the battery of tests showed continued eutrophication of the bay and not coincidentally, continued degradation of the phytoplankton community. We also found that point sources of phosphorous do not account for all of the (pelagic) primary production observed in the bay and suggest that non-point sources of phosphorous contribute significantly to eutrophication. Our results further suggest that the battery of tests strategy is a sensitive science-based tool for assessing ecosystem health. These tests could also be applied to the evaluation of ecosystem health in other Great Lakes AoCs as well as large lakes and marine environments where cultural eutrophication is a problem. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kutovaya O.A.,Bowling Green State University | Kutovaya O.A.,Environment Canada | McKay R.M.L.,Bowling Green State University | Beall B.F.N.,Bowling Green State University | And 5 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2012

For almost two decades, the western basin of Lake Erie has been plagued with recurring toxic algal blooms dominated by the colonial cyanobacterium, Microcystis spp. Since the Maumee River is a major source of nutrients and sediment inputs into the lake, and Microcystis spp. has been identified as a member of the upstream river algal assemblage, the possibility exists that the river Microcystis species serve as a seed population for the toxic blooms occurring in the lake. Genetic profiling of toxic cyanobacteria using the microcystin synthesis gene, mcyA, clearly indicates that the toxic cyanobacteria of the river are distinct from the toxic Microcystis spp. of Lake Erie. Indeed, mcyA sequences are almost exclusively from toxic Planktothrix spp., similar to what has been documented previously for Sandusky Bay. UniFrac statistical analysis of cyanobacterial community composition by comparison of 16S-23S ITS sequences also show that the Maumee River and Lake Erie communities are distinct. Overall, these data show that despite the importance of nutrient inputs and sediments from the river, the toxic cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Erie do not originate from toxic species endemic to the Maumee River and instead must originate elsewhere, most likely from the lake sediments. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Conroy J.D.,Ohio State University | Kane D.D.,Defiance College | Briland R.D.,Ohio State University | Culver D.A.,Ohio State University
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2014

Recurrent, massive cyanobacterial blooms composed mainly of the genus Microcystis indicate a broad-scale re-eutrophication of Lake Erie. In the past, ameliorating eutrophication relied on intentionally decreasing point-source tributary nutrient, especially phosphorus, loads to the lake. However, recent research has shown that tributaries load not only nutrients but also bloom-levels of phytoplankton, including Microcystis. We built on this previous work by sampling earlier in the year and in much smaller tributaries in both the Maumee and Sandusky systems. We found Microcystis wet biomasses in these tributaries averaged 3.16. mg/L (±. 0.59. mg/L, one standard error of the mean) in 2009 and 3.42. mg/L (±. 0.55. mg/L) in 2010. Importantly, we found Microcystis in small ditches in March, much earlier than previously observed. Microcystis biomass did not directly correspond to measured phosphorus, chlorophyll, or phycocyanin concentrations likely reflecting complexities associated with lagged physiological responses and/or non-linear growth relationships. Consequently, our findings emphasize that Microcystis blooms form a more broad-scale problem than previously documented, occurring far upstream much earlier in the year. © 2014 International Association for Great Lakes Research.


Chaffin J.D.,Ft Stone Laboratory | Kane D.D.,Ft Stone Laboratory | Kane D.D.,Defiance College
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2010

Traditional lake eutrophication models predict lower phosphorus concentrations with decreased external loads. However, in lakes where decreased external phosphorus loads are accompanied by increasing phosphorus concentrations, a seeming "trophic paradox" exists. Western Lake Erie is an example of such a paradox. Internal phosphorus loads may help explain this paradox. We examined bioturbation and bioirrigation created from burrowing mayfly, Hexagenia spp., as a possible source of internal phosphorus loading. Phosphorus concentrations of experimental microcosms containing lake sediments, filtered lake water, and nymphs (417/m2) collected from western Lake Erie were compared to control microcosms containing sediments and lake water over a 7-day period. Phosphorus concentrations in microcosms containing Hexagenia were significantly greater than microcosms without nymphs. Further, we estimate the soluble reactive phosphorus flux from the sediments due to Hexagenia is 1.03 mg/m2/day. Thus, Hexagenia are a source of internal phosphorus loading. High densities of Hexagenia nymphs in western Lake Erie may help explain the "trophic paradox." Furthermore, Hexagenia may be a neglected source of internal phosphorus loading in any lake in which they are abundant. Future studies of phosphorus dynamics in lakes with Hexagenia must account for the ability of these organisms to increase lake internal phosphorus loading. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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