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Deng Y.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | Xie D.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | Xie D.,Southern Medical University | Fang M.,Guangdong Academy of Medical science | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Hypoxic exposure in the perinatal period causes periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), a condition associated with myelination abnormalities. Under hypoxic conditions, glial cells were activated and released a large number of inflammatory mediators in the PWM in neonatal brain, which may result in oligodendrocyte (OL) loss and axonal injury. This study aims to determine if astrocytes are activated and generate proinflammatory cytokines that may be coupled with the oligodendroglial loss and hypomyelination observed in hypoxic PWMD. Twenty-four 1-day-old Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia for 2 h. The rats were then allowed to recover under normoxic conditions for 7 or 28 days before being killed. Another group of 24 rats kept outside the chamber was used as age-matched controls. Upregulated expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was observed in astrocytes in the PWM of P7 hypoxic rats by double immunofluorescence, western blotting and real time RT-PCR. This was linked to apoptosis and enhanced expression of TNF-R1 and IL-1R1 in APC+ OLs. PLP expression was decreased significantly in the PWM of P28d hypoxic rats. The proportion of myelinated axons was markedly reduced by electron microscopy (EM) and the average g-ratios were higher in P28d hypoxic rats. Upregulated expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in primary cultured astrocytes as well as their corresponding receptors in primary culture APC + oligodendrocytes were detected under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that following a hypoxic insult, astrocytes in the PWM of neonatal rats produce inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, which induce apoptosis of OLs via their corresponding receptors associated with them. This results in hypomyelination in the PWM of hypoxic rats. © 2014 Deng et al. Source


Yang L.,Kunming Medical University | Kan E.M.,Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute | Lu J.,Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute | Wu C.,168 West Chunrong Road | Ling E.-A.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2014

Background: We reported previously that amoeboid microglial cells in the postnatal rat brain expressed 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) both in vivo and in vitro; however, the functional role of CNPase in microglia has remained uncertain. This study extended the investigation to determine CNPase expression in activated microglia derived from cell culture and animal models of brain injury with the objective to clarify its putative functions. Methods: Three-day-old Wistar rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide to induce microglial activation, and the rats were killed at different time points. Along with this, primary cultured microglial cells were subjected to lipopolysaccharide treatment, and expression of CNPase was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR and immunofluorescence. Additionally, siRNA transfection was employed to downregulate CNPase in BV-2 cells. Following this, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β and TNF-α were determined at mRNA and protein levels. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were also assessed by flow cytometry and colorimetric assay, respectively. In parallel to this, CNPase expression in activated microglia was also investigated in adult rats subjected to fluid percussion injury as well as middle cerebral artery occlusion. Results: In vivo, CNPase immunofluorescence in activated microglia was markedly enhanced after lipopolysaccharide treatment. A similar feature was observed in the rat brain after fluid percussion injury and middle cerebral artery occlusion. In vitro, CNPase protein and mRNA expression was increased in primary microglia with lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Remarkably, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, TNF-α, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were significantly upregulated in activated BV-2 cells with CNPase knockdown. siRNA knockdown of CNPase increased microglia migration; on the other hand, microglial cells appeared to be arrested at G1 phase. Conclusions: The present results have provided the first morphological and molecular evidence that CNPase expression is increased in activated microglia. CNPase knockdown resulted in increased expression of various inflammatory mediators. It is concluded that CNPase may play an important role as a putative anti-inflammatory gene both in normal and injured brain. © 2014 Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Rivino L.,National University of Singapore | Kumaran E.A.,National University of Singapore | Thein T.-L.,National University of Singapore | Too C.T.,National University of Singapore | And 10 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Dengue, which is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease afflicting human populations, causes a spectrum of clinical symptoms that include fever, muscle and joint pain, maculopapular skin rash, and hemorrhagic manifestations. Patients infected with dengue develop a broad antigen-specific T lymphocyte response, but the phenotype and functional properties of these cells are only partially understood. We show that natural infection induces dengue-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes that are highly activated and proliferating, exhibit antiviral effector functions, and express CXCR3, CCR5, and the skin-homing marker cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA). In the same patients, bystander human cytomegalovirus -specific CD8+ T cells are also activated during acute dengue infection but do not express the same tissue-homing phenotype. We show that CLA expression by circulating dengue-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells correlates with their in vivo ability to traffic to the skin during dengue infection. The juxtaposition of dengue-specific T cells with virus-permissive cell types at sites of possible dengue exposure represents a previously uncharacterized form of immune surveillance for this virus. These findings suggest that vaccination strategies may need to induce dengue-specific T cells with similar homing properties to provide durable protection against dengue viruses. Source


Ang S.-F.,National University of Singapore | Moochhala S.M.,National University of Singapore | Moochhala S.M.,Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute | MacAry P.A.,National University of Singapore | Bhatia M.,University of Otago
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) has been shown to induce transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-mediated neurogenic inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis. However, endogenous neural factors that modulate this event and the molecular mechanism by which this occurs remain unclear. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that whether substance P (SP) is one important neural element that implicates in H 2S-induced neurogenic inflammation in sepsis in a TRPV1-dependent manner, and if so, whether H 2S regulates this response through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-nuclear factor-κB (ERK-NF-κB) pathway. Male Swiss mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and treated with TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine 30 minutes before CLP. DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of H 2S formation, was administrated 1 hour before or 1 hour after sepsis, whereas sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H 2S donor, was given at the same time as CLP. Capsazepine significantly attenuated H 2S-induced SP production, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules levels, and protected against lung and liver dysfunction in sepsis. In the absence of H 2S, capsazepine caused no significant changes to the PAG-mediated attenuation of lung and plasma SP levels, sepsis-associated systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction. In addition, capsazepine greatly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and inhibitory κBα, concurrent with suppression of NF-κB activation even in the presence of NaHS. Furthermore, capsazepine had no effect on PAG-mediated abrogation of these levels in sepsis. Taken together, the present findings show that H 2S regulates TRPV1-mediated neurogenic inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis through enhancement of SP production and activation of the ERK-NF-κB pathway. © 2011 Ang et al. Source


Paradkar P.N.,National University of Singapore | Ooi E.E.,National University of Singapore | Hanson B.J.,Defense Medical and Environmental Research Institute | Gubler D.J.,National University of Singapore | Vasudevan S.G.,National University of Singapore
Bioscience Reports | Year: 2011

DENV (dengue virus) induces UPR (unfolded protein response) in the host cell, which strikes a balance between pro-survival and pro-apoptotic signals. We previously showed that Salubrinal, a drug that targets the UPR, inhibits DENV replication. Here, we examine the impact on UPR after direct or ADE (antibody-dependent enhanced) infection of cells with DENV clinical isolates. THP-1 cells in the presence of subneutralizing concentration of humanized antibody 4G2 (cross-reactive with flavivirus envelope protein) or HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) were infected with DENV-1-4 serotypes. UPR gene expression was monitored under these infection conditions using real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and Western blots to analyse serotype-dependent variations. Subsequently, in a blinded study, strain-specific differences were compared between DENV-2 clinical isolates obtained from a single epidemic. Results showed that THP-1 cells were infected efficiently and equally by DENV-1-4 in the ADE mode. At 48 hpi (h post infection), DENV-1 and -3 showed a higher replication rate and induced higher expression of several UPR genes such as BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), GADD34 (growth arrest DNA damage-inducible protein 34) and CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein]. The ADE infection of THP-1 cells with epidemic DENV-2 high-UPR-gene-expressing strains appears to correlate with severe disease; however, no such correlation could be made when the same viruses were used to infect HEK-293 cells. Our finding that UPR gene expression in THP-1 cells during ADE infection correlates with dengue disease severity is consistent with a previous study [Morens, Marchette, Chu and Halstead (1991) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 45, 644-651] that showed that the growth of DENV 2 isolates in human peripheral blood leucocytes correlated with severe and mild dengue diseases. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2011 Biochemical Society. Source

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