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Jaiswal M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Dinda A.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Gupta A.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Koul V.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Biomedical Materials | Year: 2010

A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 ± 6.4 to 23 ± 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 ± 0.2 °C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; Mt/M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Prasad J.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Singh M.,National Dairy Research Institute
Animal | Year: 2010

An experiment was carried out on 10 advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes to determine the role of hormones in milk secretion around parturition. Experimental animals were administered with a single injection of bromocryptine, @ 100 μg/kg BW, for 5 days before expected calving, whereas control group buffaloes were injected with placebo injections. Blood samples collected before parturition (-5,-4,-3,-2,-1 days), on day of parturition (day-0) and on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 15 post partum were analyzed for growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and prolactin (PRL) by radioimmunassay methods. Milk samples were collected daily for 5 days and on day 10 and 15 after parturition. Milk fat, protein, lactose, citric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and somatic cell counts (SCCs) were determined in milk samples. Bromocryptine treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased pre partum PRL and increased GH levels (P < 0.01) on day of parturition in experimental buffaloes without influencing plasma IGF-I level. Milk yield was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in experimental than in control group. Further, effect of bromocryptine on milk yield was only for a week. Milk yield increased (P < 0.01) gradually and was similar to control group on day 15 post partum. Bromocryptine treatment significantly increased milk SCC (P < 0.01) and protein content (P < 0.01) but there was no effect of treatment on fat, lactose, citric acid, glucose, milk and plasma NEFA concentration. It was concluded that prepartum suppression of PRL by bromocryptine impairs milk secretion temporarily in ensuing lactation. The significant rise in GH level before parturition and on day of parturition suggests a role of it in milk secretion of buffaloes. © 2010 The Animal Consortium.

Sinha P.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Kjelgaard M.M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Kjelgaard M.M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Gandhi T.K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

A rich collection of empirical findings accumulated over the past three decades attests to the diversity of traits that constitute the autism phenotypes. It is unclear whether subsets of these traits share any underlying causality. This lack of a cohesive conceptualization of the disorder has complicated the search for broadly effective therapies, diagnostic markers, and neural/genetic correlates. In this paper, we describe how theoretical considerations and a review of empirical data lead to the hypothesis that some salient aspects of the autism phenotype may be manifestations of an underlying impairment in predictive abilities. With compromised prediction skills, an individual with autism inhabits a seemingly "magical" world wherein events occur unexpectedly and without cause. Immersion in such a capricious environment can prove overwhelming and compromise one's ability to effectively interact with it. If validated, this hypothesis has the potential of providing unifying insights into multiple aspects of autism, with attendant benefits for improving diagnosis and therapy. © 2014, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Mamta,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Mehrotra S.,Amity University | Amitabh,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Kirar V.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS50%Alc (15.1+ 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS100%Alc (19.3 + 0.33mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CSAq extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8±0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36±0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14±0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS25%Alc, CS75%Alc and CS100%Alc extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CSAq extract showed minimal inhibition against these. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication. All rights reserved.

Tyagi T.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Ahmad S.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Gupta N.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | Sahu A.,Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Science | And 8 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Oxygen-compromised environments, such as high altitude, air travel, and sports, and pathological conditions, such as solid tumors, have been suggested to be prothrombotic. Despite the indispensable role of platelets in thrombus formation, the studies linking hypoxia, platelet reactivity, and thrombus formation are limited. In the present study, platelet proteome/reactivity was analyzed to elucidate the acute hypoxia-induced prothrombotic phenotype. Rats exposed to acute simulated hypoxia (282 torr/8% oxygen) demonstrated a decreased bleeding propensity and increased platelet reactivity. Proteomic analysis of hypoxic platelets revealed 27 differentially expressed proteins, including those involved in coagulation. Among these proteins, calpain small subunit 1, a 28-kDa regulatory component for calpain function, was significantly upregulated under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, intraplatelet Ca2+ level and platelet calpain activity were also found to be in accordance with calpain small subunit 1 expression. The inhibition of calpain activity demonstrated reversal of hypoxia-induced platelet hyperreactivity. The prothrombotic role for calpain was further confirmed by an in vivo model of hypoxia-induced thrombosis. Interestingly, patients who developed thrombosis while at extreme altitude had elevated plasma calpain activities and increased soluble P-selectin level. In summary, this study suggests that augmented calpain activity is associated with increased incidence of thrombosis under hypoxic environments. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

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