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Shayanfar S.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL | Shayanfar S.,Texas A&M University | Chauhan O.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Toepfl S.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL | Heinz V.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The interaction of pulsed electric fields (PEF) with different cryoprotectant and texturizing agents in quality retention of carrot discs was analysed. Increasing the permeability properties by PEF may lead to better accessibility of intracellular materials to freezing and thus reducing the freezing time, leading to better maintaining the texture after thawing. Carrot discs of 5 mm thickness were immersed in different solutions of CaCl2, glycerol, trehalose and tap water, and subsequently were treated with PEF (1 kV/cm, 100 pulses, 4 Hz). Then, the samples were drained and packed along with a control group in separate prepared polypropylene pouches. All the samples were frozen at -18 °C for 24 h and thawed during 3 h at ambient temperature (20 °C) the following day. The quality of the thawed carrot discs was certified by measuring weight loss, firmness, microscopic studies and CIE colorimetric attributes. All the PEF-treated samples, no matter what solution they were soaked in, could significantly (P < 0.05) maintain the firmness as well as colour attributes. However, it was deducted that application of CaCl2 in conjunction with PEF can result in a firmer texture. Firmness analyses determined that application of PEF alone results in 5.84 N, while its combination with CaCl2 leads to higher value of 6.63 N. Firmness in control samples was found to be 3.46 N. The SEM studies supported the results of firmness analysis and depicted more integrity in the cell walls of the samples treated with CaCl2 and glycerol. The weight loss values varied among different samples, and the highest amount and lowest amount were reported in CaCl2 and solely PEF-treated samples, respectively. There was no significant difference between the colour attributes measured in different groups including control sample (P > 0.05). © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Shayanfar S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL | Chauhan O.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Toepfl S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL | Heinz V.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The combination of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and texturizing and antifreeze agents on quality retention of defrosted potato strips were studied. Potato strips (10 mm thickness, 100 g) were placed in different solutions (1% w/v) of CaCl2, glycerol, trehalose as well as NaCl and sucrose, treated with PEF (0.5 kV cm-1, 100 pulses, 4 Hz). Then, all the samples were soaked in the same solutions for 10 min. After draining, samples were packed into polypropylene pouches and stored at -18 °C for 12 h. Samples were thawed out at room temperature (20 °C) in 3 h. Untreated controls and PEF treated control samples were also frozen and thawed in similar conditions. To assess the potato strip quality, the thawed samples were analysed for moisture content, weight loss, firmness and colour attributes. The results indicate that PEF treatment by itself is not a suitable pre-treatment method for frozen potato strips and should be assisted by CaCl2 and trehalose treatment to prevent softening after defrosting. Firmness analyses determined that application of PEF alone results in 2.38 N. However, PEF in combination with CaCl2 and trehalose result in 2.97 N and 2.99 N, respectively, which are both significantly firmer than the samples solely treated with PEF. CaCl2 and trehalose were effective in not only maintaining the structural integrity of the cells, but also retaining colour attributes. The L* value was found to be higher (P < 0.05) in CaCl2 and trehalose treated samples (58.95 and 57.21, respectively), as compared to PEF treated samples (53.97) denoting a darker colour. Application of CaCl2 and trehalsoe in combination with PEF also resulted in significantly less weight loss after thawing. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Nagaraj N.S.,Vanderbilt University | Anilakumar K.R.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Singh O.V.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an important component of garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, has been demonstrated to exert a potential molecular target against human cancers. We investigated DADS-induced expressions of Apaf1, cystatin B, caspase-3 and FADD (fas-associated protein with death domain) in breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. These showed coincident data when further examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, DADS induced a marked amount of Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. DADS-treated tumor cells triggered mitochondria-mediated signaling pathways that led to a significant increase in apoptosis induction. Further studies with caspase-3 and caspase-9 inhibitors (zDEVD-fmk and zLEHD-fmk, respectively) proved that DADS induces apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. DADS is only an agent used in the study. The molecular mechanism presented therefore provides strong additional support to the hypothesis that DADS is a strong inducer of apoptosis through a Bax-triggered mitochondria-mediated and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This study shows clearly that DADS causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, the mitochondrial pathway might be the target for cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy by DADS. © 2010.

Kamalakanth C.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Ginson J.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Bindu J.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Venkateswarlu R.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 3 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2011

The effect of different high pressure treatments on K-value, total plate count, enterobacteriaceae and organoleptic characteristics of yellowfin tuna chunks packed in ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH) films during chill storage (2 ± 1 °C) was studied. 50 g of fresh tuna chunks were placed in EVOH multilayer film pouches and vacuum packed for the trials. Tuna chunks were subjected to 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 5 min at 25 °C. Control was vacuum packed tuna without pressure treatment. K value, microbiological analysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated at periodic intervals. The K-value of the samples was found to decrease with increase in pressure when compared to the control. However, K-value was found to increase in all the samples during storage. Higher pressure treatment showed a decrease in the total plate count in the samples which increased during the storage. The Enterobacteriaceae decreased with increasing pressure and during storage. Control samples were sensorally acceptable up to 20 days of storage. During the storage period of 30 days 200 MPa treated tuna chunks was found most acceptable based on above parameters. Industrial relevance: High pressure processing is a non thermal processing method which has wide applications in food industry. Fish is a highly perishable commodity and it has a limited shelf life in chill conditions. High pressure treatment has been found to effectively extend the shelf life of various products. In this study, HPP has been effectively demonstrated for enhancing the storage period of tuna at low temperature. Such studies can be commercially applied by fish processing industries to preserve the valuable catch and can enhance the marketing potential of tuna. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jagannath A.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Kumar M.,Defense Food Research Laboratory
International Journal of Fruit Science | Year: 2016

Naringin, a bitter bioflavonoid of orange, widely reported for health promoting benefits is also responsible for reduced acceptability of many orange products where peels are integral components. The current study quantified naringin concentrations present in three types of oranges viz., Nagpur (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Kinnow (Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa), and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) spectrophotometrically and by high performance liquid chromatograph. The oranges were subjected to repeated blanching at a mild blanching temperature of 65 °C, subjected to osmodehydration and the loss of naringin monitored during processing as well as during extended storage of up to 6 months at room temperature. A wide range of physicochemical parameters were monitored at monthly intervals during the entire period of storage. Blanching reduced the naringin content by 50% and storage further decreased it to 3–10 mg/100g for all of the cultivars studied. In terms of physicochemical parameters and sensory analysis, Kinnow and Mandarin cultivars are better suited for osmotic dehydration. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

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