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Datta S.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Chatterjee S.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Veer V.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Chakravarty R.,ICMR Virus Unit
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology | Year: 2012

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major global health problems, especially in economically under-developed or developing countries. HBV infection can lead to a number of clinical outcomes including chronic infection, cirrhosis and liver cancer. It ranks among the top 10 causes of death, being responsible for around 1 million deaths every year. Despite the availability of a highly efficient vaccine and potent antiviral agents, HBV infection still remains a significant clinical problem, particularly in those high endemicity areas where vaccination of large populations has not been possible due to economic reasons. Although HBV is among the smallest viruses in terms of virion and genome size, it has numerous unique features that make it completely distinct from other DNA viruses. It has a partially double stranded DNA with highly complex genome organization, life cycle and natural history. Remarkably distinct from other DNA viruses, it uses an RNA intermediate called pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and reverse transcriptase for its genome replication. Genome replication is accomplished by a complex mechanism of primer shifting facilitated by direct repeat sequences encoded in the genome. Further, the genome has evolved in such a manner that every single nucleotide of the genome is used for either coding viral proteins or used as regulatory regions or both. Moreover, it utilizes internal in-frame translation initiation codons, as well as different reading frames from the same RNA to generate different proteins with diverse functions. HBV also shows considerable genetic variability which has been related with clinical outcomes, replication potential, therapeutic response etc. This review aims at reviewing fundamental events of the viral life cycle including viral replication, transcription and translation, from the molecular standpoint, as well as, highlights the clinical relevance of genetic variability of HBV. © 2012 INASL.


PubMed | Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur and ICMR Virus Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology | Year: 2015

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major global health problems, especially in economically under-developed or developing countries. HBV infection can lead to a number of clinical outcomes including chronic infection, cirrhosis and liver cancer. It ranks among the top 10 causes of death, being responsible for around 1million deaths every year. Despite the availability of a highly efficient vaccine and potent antiviral agents, HBV infection still remains a significant clinical problem, particularly in those high endemicity areas where vaccination of large populations has not been possible due to economic reasons. Although HBV is among the smallest viruses in terms of virion and genome size, it has numerous unique features that make it completely distinct from other DNA viruses. It has a partially double stranded DNA with highly complex genome organization, life cycle and natural history. Remarkably distinct from other DNA viruses, it uses an RNA intermediate called pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and reverse transcriptase for its genome replication. Genome replication is accomplished by a complex mechanism of primer shifting facilitated by direct repeat sequences encoded in the genome. Further, the genome has evolved in such a manner that every single nucleotide of the genome is used for either coding viral proteins or used as regulatory regions or both. Moreover, it utilizes internal in-frame translation initiation codons, as well as different reading frames from the same RNA to generate different proteins with diverse functions. HBV also shows considerable genetic variability which has been related with clinical outcomes, replication potential, therapeutic response etc. This review aims at reviewing fundamental events of the viral life cycle including viral replication, transcription and translation, from the molecular standpoint, as well as, highlights the clinical relevance of genetic variability of HBV.


Dhiman S.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Rabha B.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Chattopadhyay P.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | Das N.G.,Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

In the present study we have evaluated the repellent activity of mixture of Curcuma longa, Zanthoxylum limonella and Pogostemon heyneanus essential oils in 1:1:2 ratio at 5%, 10% and 20% concentration against blackflies in northeastern India. Initially the essential oil mixture tested here has been found effective against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The average protection recorded in 20% concentration (170.56±4.0; 95% CI = 162.09-179.02) was higher as compared to other two concentrations (F = 90.2; p<0.0001; df = 53). Percentage repellency and repellency index was found to be higher in 20% concentration (p≤0.017). No appreciable clinical and behavioral signs were observed in the acute dermal toxicity using rat model. No changes were observed in biochemical profiles of treatment group animals. Similarly, no prominent lesions were observed in vital organs of treatment in both the sexes. The study concludes that tested repellent is safe for use and has multi-insects repellent property.


PubMed | Defence Research Laboratory Tezpur
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical biomedicine | Year: 2012

In the present study we have evaluated the repellent activity of mixture of Curcuma longa, Zanthoxylum limonella and Pogostemon heyneanus essential oils in 1:1:2 ratio at 5%, 10% and 20% concentration against blackflies in northeastern India. Initially the essential oil mixture tested here has been found effective against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The average protection recorded in 20% concentration (170.56 4.0; 95% CI = 162.09-179.02) was higher as compared to other two concentrations (F = 90.2; p<0.0001; df = 53). Percentage repellency and repellency index was found to be higher in 20% concentration (p 0.017). No appreciable clinical and behavioral signs were observed in the acute dermal toxicity using rat model. No changes were observed in biochemical profiles of treatment group animals. Similarly, no prominent lesions were observed in vital organs of treatment in both the sexes. The study concludes that tested repellent is safe for use and has multi-insects repellent property.

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