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Jain N.,Defence Research Development Establishment | Kumar P.,Defence Research Development Establishment | Kumar D.,Defence Research Development Establishment | Vijayaraghavan R.,Defence Research Development Establishment
Defence Science Journal | Year: 2012

Atropine sulphate and pralidoxime chloride are considered as essential antidotes in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Now in India these antidotes are available in the form of self injectable autoinjectors. This study is designed with aim to replace two individual autoinjectors with single one. Stability of the components plays a vital role in the development of any dosage form, in this study we investigated the stability of the antidotes in combination (atropine sulphate+2 PAMCl) in single drug cartridges. In the present work shelf life of pralidoxime chloride (300 mg/ml) and atropine sulphate (1 mg/ml) solution in combination was evaluated by accelerated studies. The derived model is based on the rate equation and Arrhenius equation was used for extrapolation. Further, antidotal efficacy of atropine sulphate in vitro, using rat's isolated ileum and pralidoxime chloride by survival studies in vivo against dichlorvas in mice were evaluated, for further confirmation of analytical findings. The constituted formulation was found to be stable for 24 months. © 2012, DESIDOC.


PubMed | DIPAS, Biomedical Research Laboratory and Defence Research & Development Establishment
Type: | Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics | Year: 2014

We have designed here a label-free direct electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cytochrome c (cyt c), a heme containing metalloprotein using its specific monoclonal antibody. Two nanocomposite-based electrochemical immunosensor platforms were evaluated for the detection of cyt c; (i) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold nanoparticles (GNP) in polypyrrole (PPy) grafted screen printed electrodes (SPE) and (ii) carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated PPy/SPE. The nanotopologies of the modified electrodes were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to monitor the stepwise fabrication of the nanocomposite immunosensor platforms. In the present method, the label-free quantification of cyt c is based on the direct electron transfer between Fe (III)/Fe (II)-heme redox active site of cyt c selectively bound to anti-cyt c nanocomposite modified SPE. GNP/PPy and CNT/PPy nanocomposites promoted the electron transportation through the conductive pore channels. The overall analytical performance of GNP/PPy based immunosensor (detection limit 2 nM; linear range: 2 nM to 150 M) was better than the anti-cyt c/CNT/PPy (detection limit 10 nM; linear range: 10 nM to 50 M). Further, the measurement of cyt c release in cell lysates of cardiomyocytes using the GNP/PPy based immunosensor gave an excellent correlation with standard ELISA.


Afley P.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Dohre S.K.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Prasad G.B.K.S.,Jiwaji University | Kumar S.,Defence Research & Development Establishment
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly dl-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sukumaran D.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Ponmariappan S.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Sharma A.K.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Jha H.K.,Defence Research & Development Establishment | Wasu Y.H.,Defence Research & Development Establishment
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker’s yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker’s yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to enhance their trapping efficiency of a mosquito surveillance programme. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Pandey M.,Xcelrisgenomics | Chikara S.K.,Xcelrisgenomics | Vyas M.K.,Xcelrisgenomics | Sharma R.,Tropilite Foods Pvt. Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Tinospora cordifolia is a deciduous climbing shrub described as 'the one who protects the body against diseases'. It is one of the most versatile rejuvenating shrub also known as 'Giloya' in Indian vernacular having many therapeutic applications. The pharmaceutical significance of this plant is mainly because of the leaves, barks and roots contain various bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides, lactones, steroids, polysaccharides and aliphatic compounds having various medicinal importance viz. immunomodulatory or immunostimulatory, antitumor, cognition, antiinflammatory, anti-neoplastic, antihyperglycemia, antihyperlipidemia, antioxidant, antituberculosis, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-malarial, anti-allergic and side effects prevention of the cancer chemotherapy. The bitter priniciples present in the leaves, stems, roots and barks viz. tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, berberine, cordifolioside A, B. C, amritosides A, B, C, and columbin which act as therapeutic agents and play vital role in many therapeutic applications. Various parts of the plant are being prescribed in Ayurveda and other systems of medicine as a monoherbal or polyherbal preparation. The climbing shrub has shown a great potential for the development of industrial products and commercial exploitation of biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases. The focus of the present review is to galvanize the potential of medicinal importance of this shrub for health care management.


PubMed | Defence Research & Development Establishment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2013

Oviposition response of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus females to a series of synthetic fatty acid esters was evaluated at 10ppm under laboratory conditions. Octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 85% and 73% increased ovipositional responses respectively, compared to control, among the 16 esters tested. Other 14 esters showed highly significant repellency (67-96%) to gravid females. Standard 3-methyl indole received 69% increased egg deposition compared to control. In the Y-tube olfactometer, gravid C. quinquefasciatus females exhibited 78, 64% and 58% orientation respectively to octyl tridecanoate, propyl octadecanoate and 3-methyl indole. Gravid females exhibited 19-41% reduced orientation toward treatment odors of other esters significantly different from respective control. Electroantennogram studies revealed 4-18-fold increased antennal response, in which 3-methyl indole, octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 8-, 18- and 15-fold EAG response respectively, compared to control. Relative EAG response of octyl tridecanoate compared to standard 3-methyl indole was significantly different. Reduced EAG responses were elicited by FAE-06, -08, -13, -14 and -15, while the relative EAG responses of other esters were at par with the standard stimulus. These, esters could be utilized potentially as oviposition attractants and repellents against C. quinquefasciatus females to reduce the breeding in polluted water along with existing integrated vector control methods.


PubMed | Distributed Information Sub Center, Mycobacterium Research Group, Defence Research & Development Establishment and Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology | Year: 2014

Resveratrol, a phytochemical commonly found in the skin of grapes and berries, was tested for its biofilm inhibitory activity against Vibrio cholerae. Biofilm inhibition was assessed using crystal violet assay. MTT assay was performed to check the viability of the treated bacterial cells and the biofilm architecture was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The possible target of the compound was determined by docking analysis. Results showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the compound could significantly inhibit biofilm formation in V. cholerae in a concentration-dependent manner. AphB was found to be the putative target of resveratrol using docking analysis. The results generated in this study proved that resveratrol is a potent biofilm inhibitor of V. cholerae and can be used as a novel therapeutic agent against cholera. To our knowledge, this is the first report of resveratrol showing antibiofilm activity against V. cholerae.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and Defence Research & Development Establishment
Type: | Journal: Journal of colloid and interface science | Year: 2014

We report the synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles by dc magnetron sputtering for adsorptive degradation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of well-known chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD). The synthesized CuO nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, N2-BET, FT-IR and TGA. The average particle size calculated from XRD pattern was found to be 7 nm for as-deposited and varied up to 86 nm after postannealing. The particle size was also calculated through TEM analysis. The surface area of the particles (110-36 m(2)/g) is found to be enhanced significantly in comparison with reported in the literature. Degradation kinetics of CEES was investigated over the CuO nanoparticles and it was found that dc sputtered CuO nanoparticles give superior decontamination properties against CEES. The reactions seemed to be first order with rate constant (k) and half-life (t(1/2)) values in the range of 0.434-0.134 h(-1) and 1.59-5.17 h respectively. The reaction products were characterized by GC-MS and verified through FT-IR. The data reveal the role of hydrolysis reactions in the decontamination of CEES.


PubMed | Defence Research & Development Establishment
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of vector borne diseases | Year: 2015

Oviposition is an important event in the life cycle of mosquito which is a decisive factor for the fate of its progeny. If oviposition is prevented, the life cycle of mosquito is disrupted and the population growth can be reduced. Diethyl-phenylacetamide (DEPA) is an effective topical repellent against various haematophagous insects. The study reports the egg retention effect and subsequent lethal effect of DEPA on the gravid females of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.DEPA was applied at 1000 mg/l onto water surface in oviposition bowls under no-choice condition. Experiments had three replicates with three control and treated cages separately, containing 100 gravid females of each test mosquito species. Every day freshly treated oviposition bowls were provided to the gravid mosquitoes till the last surviving female of the cohort was dead. On completion of one experimental day (24 h) the number of eggs laid in control and treatment bowls were counted manually to assess the oviposition response and longevity of test mosquito species.DEPA at 1000 mg/l concentration reduced the egg deposition and affected the longevity of gravid females. In the DEPA treated cages >1100 eggs were retained by both the species. In the treated cages, about 50% of Ae. albopictus and 41% of Ae. aegypti females died, retaining eggs in their abdomen. The average life span of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females in control cages were 43 and 50 days respectively, while the females of both the species exposed to DEPA in treated cages survived for 16-22 days.Presence of DEPA odor on water surface forced the gravid Aedes females to retain their eggs, affecting their fecundity and longevity. This indigenously developed topical repellent DEPA may be applied to containers water that act as breeding grounds for dengue vectors to deter gravid females from oviposition in the vicinity of a household.


We demonstrate herein the application of selective derivatization method that converts volatile and labile trialkylphosphites (TAPs) into virtually non-volatile, thermally stable, and UV absorbing derivatives. After simple sample preparation, purification/enrichment of the derivatives was achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to on-line post column solid phase extraction (SPE) system. These derivatives were subjected to (31)P{(1)H} NMR and 1D-selTOCSY experiments. Conclusive identification was achieved on the basis of their HPLC retention time and NMR spectral signatures ( [Formula: see text] , (n)JH-H, and (3)JP-H). This method was tested for the unambiguous identification of a mixture containing low concentrations (10gmL(-1)) of trimethylphosphite (TMP), triethylphosphite (TEP), triisopropylphosphite (TIP), and tributylphosphite (TBP) along with a high concentration of irrelevant background chemicals. It offered a high dynamic range and good detection limit and recovery (>75%) without the need for special NMR probe heads or exotic NMR experiments.

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