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Sachdeva E.,International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad | Porwal P.,International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad | Vidyulatha N.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Shrestha R.,International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad
2016 IEEE Annual India Conference, INDICON 2016 | Year: 2016

In this work, the overall system design of the automatic car-parking application has been presented where its non-linear control estimation is based on the fuzzy logic control (FLC) model. Finite state machine (FSM) based central controller has been used to operate such FLC model. It performs a series of operations required for the real-time car-parking process. Subsequently, the defuzzifier architecture has been further optimized using resource sharing technique which reduces the overall chip area and power consumption of the proposed car parking system. Additionally, we have discussed the results from field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) synthesis and application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) implementations of the suggested architecture and compared with the conventional architecture. Functional verification of the design using simulation tool for a similar set of inputs has been performed in this work. Thus, the suggested architecture occupies an area of 46335 μm2 and consumes a total power of 0.06254 mW at 60 MHz, when synthesized and post-layout simulated in 180 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology node. © 2016 IEEE.


Kumar L.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Mittal D.K.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Shrestha R.,International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad
2016 IEEE Annual India Conference, INDICON 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper proposes low-power design of the Gaussian-Minimum Shift-Keying (GMSK) demodulator using baseband quadrature signals. High-level architecture of this demodulator incorporates CO-ordinate Rotation-DIgital Computer (CORDIC) engine to accept the in-phase and quadrature components from received GMSK signal to generate phase angle and magnitude of the GMSK signal vector at half the sampling frequency thereby reducing the power consumption. Additionally, the design of differentiator and synchronizer for the suggested GMSK demodulator has been carried out. The proposed demodulator is implemented in field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) and post-route simulated for functional verification. Thereafter, BER performance analysis of this design has been carried out in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel environment. Finally, the suggested architecture is synthesized and post-layout simulated using 90 nm CMOS technology node. It occupies a core area of 0.12 mm2 with 17770 gates and consumes 4.42 mW at 167 MHz of clock frequency. © 2016 IEEE.


Kumar G.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering | Year: 2015

A continuous snow fence of 50% porosity, 130 m in length, and 4.0 m height was installed to overcome the snowdrift problems at Banihal Top (Jammu and Kashmir, India) in the Himalayan region. The avalanche sites, which affect the north and south Portals of the Jawahar Tunnel, have catchment areas near Banihal Top. The width of mountainous ridge at this site is about 60 m except within a central depression area where the width is about 200-250 m. Snow mass is eroded from the southern windward slope and deposited on the northern leeward slope toward the Kashmir valley during the winter. The rates of erosion and deposition of snow are controlled by snow characteristics, the snow surface roughness, terrain features, and the snow fence configuration. The snow at Banihal Top is wet in nature and snow deposition due to snow drifting is found to be about 105 m3 per running meter of snow fence having a height of 4.0 m. The storage capacity of this snow fence is higher than that of previously installed snow fences of 3.0 and 3.5 m heights. The extension of deposited snow on the leeward side of the snow fence is found to be 15-17 times the snow fence height; this is comparatively smaller than the extension of drifted snow mass reported in Western countries. It is observed that the nose of the drifted snow profile is shifted toward the snow fence with a reduction of the snow fence porosity due to snow riming. Change in porosity due to snow riming of the fence reduces its capacity but it serves to accumulate more snow if the riming happened after the aerodynamic equilibrium state is reached. The snow fence has reduced the snow mass accumulation in the formation zone of the avalanche site. It has also helped to prevent blockage of the national highway NH-1 A and the North Portal of the Jawahar Tunnel in Jammu and Kashmir, India. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Varun M.,St Johns College | D'Souza R.,St Johns College | Kumar D.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Paul M.S.,St Johns College
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Toxicity of lead in soil is well documented and established. Phytoremediation has gained attention as a cheap, easily applicable, and eco-friendly clean-up technology. Chemical methods are used to assess exact levels and type of pollutants but heavy metal content in soil can also be evaluated indirectly by estimation of phytotoxicity levels using bioassays. Plant bioassays through fast germinating cereals can indicate not only the level of pollution and its effects on growth and survival but also the progress of phytoremediation process. The performance of barley Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings as bioassay for assessment of changes in the levels of lead (Pb) at three concentrations, i.e.; 300 (T1), 600 (T2), and 1,200 ppm (T3) in the soil was evaluated while testing the efficiency of Crinum asiaticum L. as a phytoremedial tool. At the first assessment, i.e.; 30 DAT (days after treatment) shoot and root lengths of seedlings decreased with increasing concentrations of Pb. As the study progressed, a decrease in levels of Pb was accompanied by better germinability and growth of barley. At 120 DAT seedling growth in all the treatments were comparable to control. In T 1, T2, and T3 soils, 74.5%, 83.7%, and 91.2% reduction in lead content was observed at 120 DAT. Highly significant correlations between decreasing pollutant (Pb) content in the soil, seed germination, and seedling growth of barley H. vulgare were found. The differences in root and shoot length as well as overall growth pattern are indicative of the suitability of barley as a bio-monitoring tool. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Verma R.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Neethu S.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Kamble S.S.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | Radhakrishnan J.K.,Defence Research and Development Organization DRDO | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST | Year: 2012

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) based gas sensing technology is a futuristic technology that has wide application in aerospace industry. In this paper we present the preliminary measurements on a TDLAS based Oxygen Sensor. TDLAS bench model setup has been established to measure the 1st and 2nd harmonics of the absorption signal. If-normalized WMS-2 technique is used for calculation of percentage oxygen concentration. The result has been compared with the 2nd harmonic detection technique and observed that the measured oxygen concentration coincides with the actual oxygen concentration using If-normalized WMS-2 technique. © 2012 IEEE.

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