Defence Research and Development Canada
Quebec, Canada

Defence Research and Development Canada, also DRDC , is an agency of the Department of National Defence , whose purpose is to provide the Canadian Armed Forces , other government departments, and public safety and national security communities with the knowledge and technology needed to defend and protect Canada’s interests at home and abroad.DRDC has approximately 1,400 employees across eight research centres within Canada. Wikipedia.

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LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Technavio analysts forecast the global botanical and plant-derived drugs market to grow at a CAGR of almost 8% during the forecast period, according to their latest report. The research study covers the present scenario and growth prospects of the global botanical and plant-derived drugs market for 2017-2021. The market is segmented by product (plant-derived drugs and botanical drugs) and geography (APAC, EMEA, and the Americas). The global botanical and plant-derived drugs market is expected to benefit from the increasing limitations associated with the development of traditional drugs. Also, the complex manufacturing process involved in the development of conventional drugs has fueled the demand for plant-based drugs. Moreover, the plant-derived drugs offer many advantages such as low capital investments and less technical expertise. This report is available at a USD 1,000 discount for a limited time only: View market snapshot before purchasing Buy 1 Technavio report and get the second for 50% off. Buy 2 Technavio reports and get the third for free. Technavio healthcare and life sciences research analysts highlight the following three factors that are contributing to the growth of the global botanical and plant-derived drugs market: Government have taken up many initiatives for the development of new plant-based drugs. Much attention is being provided to herbal medicines by the global healthcare systems. Countries like China makes use of herbal medicines for treating diseases like acute respiratory syndrome. WHO along with countries like India, China, the US, Nigeria are making significant investments for research in herbal medicines. According to Barath Palada, a lead cardiovascular and metabolic disorders research analyst from Technavio, “For aiding the R&D activities of plant-based drugs, governments have started awarding contracts to industry players. In the year 2016, PlantForm received a Government of Canada contract for the plant-based production of an antibody being evaluated by Defence Research and Development Canada as an antidote to ricin exposure.” With the increasing cost of developing and manufacturing traditional drugs, vendors have now started looking forward to achieving an alternative solution, such as plant-derived drugs that cost less than conventional drugs. Other aspects that are driving the growth of the plant-derived drugs are the involvement of less technical experts and low capital investment during manufacture. “Cost is not the only factor that is driving the demand of plant-based drugs. For instance, the developers can reduce the risk of cells carrying mammalian viruses. Also, there are clear advantages for developing economies. In addition, if the seeds could be transported easily to local production facilities without using the cold chain, the technology could boost underdeveloped economies. Such advantages will drive the market growth,” adds Barath. Growing demand for effective treatment of chronic disorders coupled with launch of new products The growing demand for the effective treatment of chronic disorders such as epilepsy will drive the market growth. For instance, cancer, pain disorder, actinic keratosis, and type 2 diabetes are some of the chronic disorders that are associated with high unmet medical needs in the market. For instance, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2014 statistics, breast cancer is leading cancer worldwide, followed by prostate cancer and lung cancer. Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like orthopedics and medical devices, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, and in-vitro diagnostics. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, re-sellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at

News Article | June 20, 2017

For over a year, Canadian military, intelligence, police, and border agencies have been meeting to develop and coordinate their biometric capabilities, which use biological markers like facial recognition and iris scanning to identify individuals. This initiative—details of which were revealed to Motherboard in documents obtained through an access to information request—shows that the Canadian government is reigniting its focus on biometrics after a similar attempt a decade ago fizzled out. According to these documents, which include emails, meeting agendas, and briefing reports, the meetings are an effort to coordinate the critical mass of biometrics programs that exist across many government agencies, particularly those relating to national security. The US has put together such working groups before, like the National Science and Technology Council's subcommittee on biometrics. Established in 2003, the initiative was a formal working group to coordinate biometrics efforts and it regularly released public reports. In contrast, the Canadian effort is "informal," spokespeople emphasized, and it hasn't been promoted by the government except for four tweets from Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the department that spearheaded the initiative. Spokespeople for various government branches also stressed that no actual biometric information is being shared between agencies at these meetings, which would be a major concern for privacy advocates. But documents show that database sharing was part of the discussions, raising questions about how Canadians' biometric information is handled behind closed doors. "If information is being shared behind the scenes with organizations or agencies that an individual is not informed about, then that wipes out consent," Brenda McPhail, director of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association's privacy project, told me. "Our privacy laws are based on consent." The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (the country's CIA analogue), the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Armed Forces, as well as the country's border and immigration agencies are all participants in the "Government of Canada Biometrics Community of Practice" (CoP), which had its first meeting in March of 2016. "The [initiative] was established … to encourage information-sharing and foster collaboration between federal departments and agencies that have an interest in biometric technologies and their applications," Department of National Defence (DND) spokesperson Ashley Lemire wrote Motherboard in an email. (DRDC falls under DND's umbrella.) At least one current government project—the Canadian Border Services Agency's facial recognition kiosks at airports—was discussed at meetings in the year leading up to the kiosks being rolled out in early 2017, according to John Campbell, a consultant at the Ottawa-based Bion Biometrics firm. He assisted DRDC in coordinating the biometrics group and has attended every meeting to date, he said in an interview. "The [kiosk program] is one of the biggest projects right now," Campbell said, describing how information swapping occurs between departments at these meetings. "They say, 'Here's what we're doing,' and then there's discussion, and maybe someone will say, 'Oh, this is similar to what we're doing,' or, 'Hey, did you have trouble with this?'" Read More: The RCMP Is Trying to Sneak Facial and Tattoo Recognition Into Canada It's not clear what input, if any, police or spies have had on the facial recognition kiosks. A spokesperson for the Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) wrote Motherboard in an email that the program was "developed independently from the Biometrics Working Group [a previous title for the community of practice] and the CoP." DND spokesperson Daniel LeBouthillier confirmed to Motherboard that the agencies meeting on biometrics don't share any actual biometric data, like fingerprints or facial scans. However, meeting transcripts suggest that database sharing and closer cooperation between domestic agencies was discussed. Campbell of Bion Biometrics wrote an email to DRDC staff prior to the first meeting in March of 2016 that seems to indicate that sharing biometric data was part of the motivation in setting up the initiative. Similar working groups exist in the US to ensure that "all the biometric systems in different departments could communicate to ensure they could share information on known and suspected terrorists," Campbell wrote. "We have the same problem to a smaller degree with DND and RCMP and CBSA and [Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada] needing to share information." The working group should offer "cooperation on database access" between DND, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and the CBSA, an undated summary from a DRDC meeting to establish what the initiative can offer participants states. The group could also allow the DND to analyze biometric data it collected in Afghanistan, which it was not previously permitted to do, the summary continues. While in Afghanistan, the Canadian Armed Forces collected biometric markers from locals who were suspected or believed to pose a threat to soldiers, and from shrapnel collected after bomb blasts, according to background info provided by DND. Under the DND's Afghanistan-era policy, these biometrics could only be used to support the mandates from Operation Enduring Freedom (the US military's term for the war) and NATO's now-concluded security mission in the country. Under this policy, other uses of biometrics collected in Afghanistan, like sharing them with border agents, would have required government approval. DND did not provide Motherboard with the current policy in time for publication. Additionally, representatives from the RCMP who attended the CoP's inaugural meeting said that the federal police force "wants to be able to talk more to Canadian government rather than just their foreign partners, but this can be a problem because of security clearances." The RCMP did not respond to Motherboard's request to clarify this statement in time for publication. In the past, however, the federal police force has used databases from domestic law enforcement partners and public information sources to keep tabs on environmental and First Nations protesters. Last year, Motherboard obtained RCMP documents that showed the force was seeking to upgrade its fingerprint database with biometric facial recognition technology in order to keep pace with US law enforcement. Police documents stated that the force had "no authority" in Canada to use biometrics like facial and iris recognition, however, and the police have no specific plans to implement the technology. Emails show the biometrics initiative was the result of a campaign by staff at the DRDC, and by Campbell, who said in a phone interview that he pitched the idea to the government. "There are several such groups in other parts of the world that I have seen and participated in, but there wasn't one in Canada for the Canadian government," Campbell said in an interview. "So, I suggested that it might be a good idea." In emails, some departments appeared to display reluctance to join the initiative, prompting a DRDC official to write, "we're in sales mode here." Documents suggest that CSIS was particularly difficult to convince. In one email, Campbell noted that he met with an individual whose name is redacted, but whom Campbell said in an interview was an official at Australia's border agency. Australia is a member of the international "Five Eyes" surveillance alliance, which includes Canada. In the email, Campbell suggests that the Australian could convince CSIS to join the CoP at his behest. Campbell said that he never actually gave the unnamed Australian border official the go-ahead, but regardless, CSIS is now a participant in the meetings. "While I won't speak to specifics," CSIS spokesperson Tahera Mufti wrote Motherboard in an email, "what I can say is that CSIS participates in selected communities of practice, such as those offered by DRDC's Canadian Safety and Security Program, in order to better leverage the collective knowledge and experience of the science and technology community in support of its mandate to protect Canadians and Canada's national security interests." There are precious few safeguards in place to ensure that the conversations between security agencies remain appropriate and lawful, documents suggest. In order to protect citizens' privacy, Canadian agencies are expected to file privacy impact assessments to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner (OPC) on new initiatives that may impact them. While a specific subcommittee to produce privacy impact assessments was considered for the meetings, the idea was eventually abandoned. However, the Office has presented to the group on impact assessments. "At the [May 2017] meeting, we provided an introductory presentation on policy and [Privacy Impact Assessment] processes at the OPC," Office spokesperson Valerie Lawton wrote in an email to Motherboard. "We noted during that session that, due to our audit and investigatory mandate, we can provide advice and recommendations, but do not approve or endorse programs. " Due to the CoP's "informal" nature, there are no policies or ground rules for how participating agencies share information, according to LeBouthillier, who spoke to Motherboard on behalf of DND. Privacy expert Brenda McPhail emphasized that the public has a right to know what's happening behind closed doors, particularly when it comes to implementing biometrics. "If groups are going to be created for the purpose of creating programs and sharing information, it's important that the public know what the terms of reference are, and what can and can't be done by that group," she said over the phone. "We need accountability." 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"This collaboration benefits both countries as they engage in vital research and development to improve the technology of icebreaking ships," said Iain Stewart, President of the NRC. "Our knowledge of how ships and offshore structures can operate in harsh environmental conditions combined with our world-class research facilities and expertise positions Canada as a strategic partner in providing safety and efficiency to the new U.S. polar icebreakers." The testing is assessing the models' maneuverability in ice and icebreaking resistance, building baseline requirements for new U.S. heavy polar icebreakers, and expanding the current design and operational knowledge. The Canadian and U.S. governments are also working on the long-term management of the polar icebreaker's hull integrity, which they will assess through field trials. "Model testing activities enable us to examine critical design elements and make informed design decisions early in the acquisition process," said Rear Admiral Michael Haycock, U.S. Coast Guard Assistant Commandant for Acquisition and Chief Acquisition Officer. "The data we gather from model testing at the NRC is going to be a major driver of our heavy polar icebreaker acquisition program's success and will be critical to our efforts to effectively manage costs, mitigate risks, and maintain an accelerated program schedule." This partnership was formalized through the Critical Infrastructure Protection and Border Security (CIPABS) Agreement, managed by the Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), an Agency of the Department of National Defence, on behalf of the Government of Canada, alongside DHS S&T who manages it on behalf of the U.S. Government. The results of this partnership will boost the knowledge and expertise of both the United States and Canada in icebreaking ship technologies. "This is a wonderful example of international and cross-component collaboration," said DHS Under Secretary (Acting) for Science and Technology William N. Bryan. "Supporting the operational mission of DHS is why Science & Technology exists. In this case, I am particularly proud that S&T is able to work with our neighbours to the north and bring their expertise to bear on supporting the mission of the Coast Guard."

News Article | February 15, 2017

Light detection and ranging—i.e., LiDAR, a method that uses pulsed laser light—relies on 3D laser scanners. These scanners are used in a large variety of manned and autonomous applications that require real-time 3D-perception sensors for obstacle detection and avoidance. 3D laser scanners that can operate in harsh environments and conditions with poor visibility are particularly desirable. For example, one application for such a device could augment the situational awareness of helicopter pilots as they land in unprepared terrain, where the downwash of the rotors can cause poor visibility by stirring dust, sand, or snow on the ground.1, 2 In addition to penetrating obscurants, such a scanner would ideally be capable of achieving a high enough resolution to enable the detection of small objects that could cause damage to a helicopter, such as wires, metal rods, and fence posts. It is equally important for such a LiDAR system to cover a large field of view (FOV). These requirements are difficult to implement in a single compact system. For example, in one existing approach, a LiDAR is mounted on mechanical gimbals to steer a small field of view in different directions. However, this approach adds weight, volume, complexity, and cost to the system. It also introduces additional uncertainties that arise as a result of errors in the angular positions of the gimbals. Our work seeks to overcome these issues, and to meet the demands for a robust LiDAR system. We have therefore developed a unique and innovative approach based on the use of compact optical components in which a small-FOV scan pattern can be steered within a larger field of regard (FOR). For this purpose, Neptec has developed 3D laser scanners (i.e., OPAL) that can penetrate dense obscurant conditions considerably better than the naked eye. The OPAL scanner uses Risley prism-pair technology, where two superimposed prisms are independently rotated by hollow shaft motors. A laser pulse traveling through the hollow shaft motors is bent by the rotating prisms to form a scan pattern that comprises several rosettes. This implementation offers a number of advantages, including a multitude of possible scan patterns, rapid generation of non-overlapping patterns, and a conical FOV with very high data density around its center. The geometric and material properties of the prisms define the conical FOV of the LiDAR, which can typically be set between 30 and 120°. Ideally, the operator of such a system would be able obtain very high data density at a particular location, with the additional flexibility of being able to quickly move this high-density FOV to another area within the FOR. As the result of a collaboration between Neptec and Defence Research and Development Canada, we have together developed a unique scanner prototype using double pairs of Risley prisms3 that achieves this aim. The first prism pair generates a 30° FOV, which may then be steered within a larger 90° FOR by employing the second pair of prisms. This setup has the advantage of a high-resolution scan-pattern footprint that can be moved quickly and randomly within a larger area, thereby eliminating the need for mechanical steering equipment. Moreover, the FOR is not limited to 90° and can be extended to something on the order of 120°. An illustration of this arrangement is shown in Figure 1(a), and a photo of our double Risley pair (DRP) scanner prototype is shown in Figure 1(b). In terms of its operational capabilities, our DRP can be used aboard an aircraft for a range of operations. For example, the system can scan a landing zone with high-resolution information, thereby increasing the chance of detecting small threatening obstacles (e.g., posts or wires). The system also offers a station-keeping capability, where the aircraft motions are compensated by the steering mechanism to keep the LiDAR FOV locked on an area of interest. The DRP could also be employed for tracking a small moving object in the FOR. Additionally, it could be moved by an operator to steer the high-resolution FOV to chosen locations, or over random spots by a computer program. Figure 2(a) shows LiDAR data obtained with our DRP prototype. In this application, the small 30° FOV is moved horizontally across the larger 90° FOR. The two sectors shown in Figure 2(b) correspond to the high-density FOV being steered to scan locations on either side of the overall FOR. The resulting data is color-coded to show the elevation of objects in the scene, where red- and blue-colored areas correspond to objects at lower and higher elevations, respectively. In summary, we have produced a compact LiDAR that is capable of steering a small, high-resolution FOV within a larger FOR, without the need for additional heavy and costly mechanical systems. As part of our on-going efforts, we will test our prototype aboard aircraft to determine its performance in poor visibility (i.e., caused by dust and snow). The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from Public Works and Government Services Canada under contract W7701-145836/001/MTB.

Hu A.,Defence Research and Development Canada
Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal | Year: 2011

High pressure ab initio evolutionary structure searches resulted in a hydronitrogen solid with a composition of (NH)(4). The structure searches also provided two molecular isomers, ammonium azide (AA) and trans-tetrazene (TTZ) which were previously discovered experimentally and can be taken as molecular precursors for high pressure synthesis of the hydronitrogen solid. The computed pressure versus enthalpy diagram showed that the transformation pressure to the hydronitrogen solid is 36 GPa from AA and 75 GPa from TTZ. Its metastability was analyzed by the phonon dispersion spectrum and room-temperature vibrational density of state together with the transformation energy barrier back to molecular phases at 298 K. The predicted energy barrier of 0.21 eV/atom means that the proposed hydronitrogen solid should be very stable at ambient conditions.

Osczevski R.,Defence Research and Development Canada
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2014

The groundbreaking book The Case for Mars (Zubrin 1996) advocates human exploration and colonization of the red planet. One of its themes is that Mars is beset by dragons of the sort that ancient mapmakers used to draw on maps in unexplored areas. The dragons of Mars are daunting logistical and safety challenges that deter human exploration. One such dragon must surely be its weather, for Mars sounds far too cold for human life. Air temperature alone is often a poor indicator of how cold the weather might feel. Wind, for example, makes a big difference to the thermal sensation at any temperature. The mathematical model used for this calculation was developed in 2001 to calculate the values in the wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) chart for North America. In terms of heat loss rate, surface temperature, and cold sensation, EET is identical to the familiar WCET that is reported each winter across much of North America. It therefore provides a familiar context for assessing the rigors of weather on another planet, in this case Mars.

Treurniet J.,Defence Research and Development Canada
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2014

A mobility model is used to generate the trajectories of mobile nodes in simulations when developing new algorithms for mobile networks. A model must realistically reflect the scenario in which the technology will be used to reliably validate the algorithm. Considerable progress has been made toward realistic mobility models in the academic literature, and models have become quite complex. A consistent taxonomy has not yet been established for this field. A new multifaceted taxonomy is presented in this work that provides a framework for authors to clearly and consistently describe their models, making them easier to understand and reproduce. By surveying the application field of mobile communication networks, a common nomenclature and a high-level view of existing literature are provided, which are required to reduce duplication of effort and to enable a better sense of the way forward. A tactical scenario demonstrates the application of the taxonomy to model construction. © 2014 ACM.

Treurniet J.,Defence Research and Development Canada
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2011

Internet traffic is neither well-behaved nor well-understood, which makes it difficult to detect malicious activities such as scanning. A large portion of scanning activity is of a slow scan type and is not currently detectable by security appliances. In this proof-of-concept study, a new scan detection technique is demonstrated that also improves our understanding of Internet traffic. Sessions are created using models of the behavior of packet-level data between host pairs, and activities are identified by grouping sessions based on patterns in the type of session, the IP addresses, and the ports. In a 24-h data set of nearly 10 million incoming sessions, a prodigious 78% were identified as scan probes. Of the scans, 80% were slower than basic detection methods can identify. To manage the large volume of scans, a prioritization method is introduced wherein scans are ranked based on whether a response was made and on the periodicity of the probes in the scan. The data is stored in an efficient manner, allowing activity information to be retained for very long periods of time. This technique provides insight into Internet traffic by classifying known activities, giving visibility to threats to the network through scan detection, while also extending awareness of the activities occurring on the network. © 2011 IEEE.

Kirkland D.,Defence Research and Development Canada
IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation | Year: 2011

The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for moving target imaging has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The ability to obtain focused images of moving targets makes it possible to maximise the use of existing single-channel SAR systems, without upgrading to more complex and expensive multi-channel systems. In this study, a novel technique is presented for moving target imaging utilising a single-channel SAR operating in Spotlight mode. First, the second-order keystone transform is applied to remove range curvature. Next, a non-linear phase correction is applied to correct the remaining range walk. Finally, the nominally quadratic phase in azimuth is estimated and corrected to provide focused imagery. An experimental result is presented to demonstrate the performance of this approach. © Crown Copyright Published with kind permission of the Canadian government.

Moo P.W.,Defence Research and Development Canada
IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation | Year: 2011

The radar detection of high-velocity targets with a multiple-element antenna array is considered. The detection performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with orthogonal waveforms is compared with that of a radar using a directed beam. An analytical expression for the probability of detection for a radar with a multiple-element array is derived. For high-velocity targets, the decrease in probability of detection because of the longer integration time required for MIMO radar is quantified. It is shown that for lower-velocity targets, sector search using orthogonal waveforms results has similar detection range performance to that of scanning directed beams. For higher-velocity targets, the use of scanning directed beams yields larger detection range. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

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