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Hota K.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research | Hota S.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research | Srivastava R.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research | Singh S.B.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Oxygen sensing in hypoxic neurons has been classically attributed to cytochrome c oxidase and prolyl-4-hydroxylases and involves stabilization of transcription factors, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that mediate survival responses. On the contrary, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol during hypoxic stress triggers apoptosis in neuronal cells. We, here advocate that the redox state of neuroglobin (Ngb) could regulate both Hif-1α and Nrf2 stabilization and cytochrome c release during hypoxia. The hippocampal regions showing higher expression of Ngb were less susceptible to global hypoxia-mediated neurodegeneration. During normoxia, Ngb maintained cytochrome c in the reduced state and prevented its release from mitochondria by using cellular antioxidants. Greater turnover of oxidized cytochrome c and increased utilization of cellular antioxidants during acute hypoxia altered cellular redox status and stabilized Hif-1α and Nrf2 through Ngb-mediated mechanism. Chronic hypoxia, however, resulted in oxidation and degradation of Ngb, accumulation of ferric ions and release of cytochrome c that triggered apoptosis. Administration of N-acetyl-cysteine during hypoxic conditions improved neuronal survival by preventing Ngb oxidation and degradation. Taken together, these results establish a role for Ngb in regulating both the survival and apoptotic mechanisms associated with hypoxia. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

Gandhi T.K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Gandhi T.K.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Ganesh S.,Dr. Shroffs Charity Eye Hospital | Sinha P.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Psychological Science

The factors contributing to the development of spatial imagery skills are not well understood. Here, we consider whether visual experience shapes these skills. Although differences in spatial imagery between sighted and blind individuals have been reported, it is unclear whether these differences are truly due to visual deprivation or instead are due to extraneous factors, such as reduced opportunities for the blind to interact with their environment. A direct way of assessing vision's contribution to the development of spatial imagery is to determine whether spatial imagery skills change soon after the onset of sight in congenitally blind individuals. We tested 10 children who gained sight after several years of congenital blindness and found significant improvements in their spatial imagery skills following sight-restoring surgeries. These results provide evidence of vision's contribution to spatial imagery and also have implications for the nature of internal spatial representations. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Manickam M.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Tulsawani R.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science

Janus activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STATs) pathway are associated with various neuronal functions including cell survival and inflammation. In the present study, it is hypothesized that protective action of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides in hippocampal neurons against hypoxia is mediated via JAK/STATs. Neuronal cells exposed to hypoxia (0.5% O2) display higher reactive oxygen species with compromised antioxidant status compared to unexposed control cells. Further, these cells had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 and nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, the expression of JAK1 was found to be highly expressed with phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. Cells treated with JAK1, STAT3 and STAT5 specific inhibitors resulted in more cell death compared to hypoxic cells. Treatment of cells with extract prevented oxidative stress and inflammatory response associated with hypoxia. The extract treated cells had more cell survival than hypoxic cells with induction of JAK1 and STAT5b. Cells treated with extract having suppressed JAK1 or STAT3 or STAT5 expression showed reduced cell viability than the cell treated with extract alone. Overall, the findings from these studies indicate that the aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by altering cellular JAK1, STAT3 and STAT5 levels thereby enhancing cellular survival response to hypoxia and provide a basis for possible use of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia. © 2014 Manickam, Tulsawani. Source

Jain S.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Singh S.N.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science
South African Journal of Botany

Hoodia gordonii (family: Apocynaceae) is used traditionally by the Khoi-San tribes to control hunger. It has become extremely popular and has triggered commercial interest due to its appetite suppressant property. The present study was undertaken to investigate the appetite regulatory mechanism and associated metabolic changes induced by the herb. Effect of organic solvent extract of H. gordonii on food intake and body weight of male Sprague Dawley rats was monitored at three different doses 50, 100 and 150. mg/kg body weight, given orally for five days. Subsequently, the dose of 100. mg/kg body weight was selected for further studies on the regulatory hormones and biochemical variables. Dose-dependent reduction in food intake (12-26%) was observed at a dose of 100 and 150. mg/kg body weight (p. <0.05). Appetite suppression persisted for 6. h and food intake was restored within 24. h after stopping of the treatment. There was an increase in liver glycogen stores, activity of mitochondrial CPT-1 and thyroid hormones in treated animals. The circulating levels of NPY and IGF-1 were decreased with marginal increase in leptin and CCK, in case of treated rats. There was no change in blood glucose and insulin levels were not affected significantly. The hormonal and metabolic changes due to treatment with the H. gordonii extract may be responsible for its anorectic activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ashraf M.Z.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science | Gupta N.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Scavenger receptors are modified lipoprotein binding receptors, expressed on the surface of a variety of cells including endothelial, macrophages and platelets. The most extensively studied class B scavenger receptors comprise of CD36 and SR-BI and have been found to bind to native and modified LDL. Interaction of modified LDL to CD36 accelerates foam cell formation, the key step in atherosclerotic plaque deposition. Recently scavenger receptors have also been implicated in thrombosis. Platelet CD36 serves as a sensor of oxidative stress and modulator of platelet reactivity under hyperlipidemic conditions thus, inducing prothrombotic signals. In contrast, targeting platelet SR-BI corresponds to reduce platelet hyperreactivity in hyperlipidemia suggesting that targeting these receptors could be a promising strategy for the treatment of atherothrombotic disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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