Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR

Leh, India

Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR

Leh, India
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Giri A.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Vivek P.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Kalia S.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2017

The environment is usually attributed as the major climatic factor affecting animal health and production system in all agro-climatic zones. There are various environmental components viz. temperature, radiation, snowfall, wind, precipitation, humidity etc. that impact animal health and productivity. Ladakh is a remote and difficult terrain of India for studying the impact of climate change on livestock production. This area is situated at high altitude, which varies from 10,000 to 12,000 feet from mean sea level (MSL) and temperature range is 35° to -35°C. The atmospheric oxygen pressure is 30% short of MSL. Therefore, this region exhibits hypobaric-hypoxia, extreme cold and dry-arid climate for most of the year, which restrict the growth and productivity of the different livestock populations, including dairy cattle. However, demands are very high for milk and milk products by local people, Indian troops deployed in this region and tourists. Availability of fodder and high altitude stress-induced maladies, mountain sickness (brisket edema), stunted growth, infertility, mastitis pneumonia, etc. severely limits the dairy development, which has increased the gap between supply and demand of dairy products in this region. The impact of climate change on livestock production in Ladakh is a relatively ignored research area. Since the literature on the effect of climate change on dairy cattle productivity in Leh-Ladakh is scarce, therefore, the present article reviewed the available reports and presents authors' own observations on how this climate change impacted on health, production and reproduction of dairy cattle in high altitude cold desert.


Biswas A.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Roy B.G.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Gogoi D.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Ahmed M.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Singh S.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

In the cold, arid Himalayan region of India, where the altitude is 3048-3658 m above mean sea level (MSL) and the temperature ranges from +35°C to -35°C, poultry farming is very difficult. Poultry farming in Leh-Ladakh has been a venture that has generally taken a back seat in this cold, arid region for a number of reasons. In this region, the Buddhist community makes up most of the population, and, because of their largely vegetarian lifestyle; they generally avoid killing animals in principal. Another reason is the lack of availability of any specific high yielding variety of layer or broiler breed in this high altitude region. Typically, the existing local poultry breeds exhibit very poor egg and meat production. Further factors which have influenced poultry production are the unavailability of poultry feed and the existence of harsh climatic conditions. The status of poultry rearing in this region is not encouraging, with the current total population of poultry birds limited to just a few thousand. There are many constraints contributing to this, including limited availability of feed, lack of subsidies, religious sentiments, lack of availability of suitable germ plasm, limited poultry feed ingredients, and poor knowledge regarding poultry farming. Furthermore, the housing of poultry is difficult in this cold, arid climate. Maintaining the optimum temperature of 25 to 35°C inside brooder and 15 to 20°C inside grower and layer housing requires modifications to the design of traditional poultry housing. The different types of housing available for use in this area are above- ground mud walled poly sheds, semi-underground mud or stone walled houses, trombay wall sheds and solar poultry houses. Fertility and hatchability are therefore the main problems in this area. The problems of poultry farming in high altitude and their solutions have been addressed in this paper. © World's Poultry Science Association 2010.


Bharti V.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Srivastava R.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

We examined the effects of fluoride intoxication on certain blood plasma biochemical indices in rats. Fortyeight adult female Wistar rats weighing 123-142 g were divided into eight groups: two control groups (0 and 28 days) and six experimental groups, namely sham-injected animals (vehicle), injected with pineal proteins (PP) and melatonin (Mel), intoxicated with fluoride (F), and also F+PP and F+Mel groups. Fluoride (150 ppm, per os administration with drinking water), melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.), and PP (100 μg/kg, i.p.) were administered daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of experiments to estimate plasma [Na +] and [K +], alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and levels of glucose and proteins in different animal groups. The plasma [K +] and [Na +], and ALP activity were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in F-treated animals, as compared with others. Administration of PP and Mel in F-treated rats caused significant (P < < 0.05) reduction of [Na +], [K +], and ALP levels. Interestingly, PP and Mel administrations resulted in noticeable (P < 0.05) increases in the plasma glucose level in F-intoxicated animals, as compared to other groups. These findings convincingly indicate that PP and Mel exert ameliorative effects on fluoride-induced adverse changes in certain biochemical parameters in rats. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.


Bharti V.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Srivastava R.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kumar H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123-143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 μg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly P < 0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P < 0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. © 2014 Vijay K. Bharti et al.


Phani Kumar G.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Kumar R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Chaurasia O.P.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Singh S.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

The study reveals that Ladakh is rich in vegetation, medicinal flora and endemic diversity. The traditional knowledge on native plant species highlights Amchi system of medicine and their traditional health-care system, both logistically as well as economically. The excessive extraction of medicinal plant resources for use in the pharmaceutical industry, has resulted in ruthless destruction of natural populations of medicinal plants. Present study, attempts to assess the current status of knowledge of medicinal plant resources of Ladakh and herbal products. It also focuses on the importance of documenting traditional knowledge and practices, related to conservation and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants of Ladakh. An approach for prioritizing strategies for action is proposed, which is a three step process, namely technology development, technology dissemination, technology assessment and refinement. Besides, the approach highlights the importance of involving indigenous communities, traditional institutions and NGOs to complement efforts of academics, scientists and government departments to ensure conservation and utilization of this resource. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Xavier J.R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Kumar J.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Bihari R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Twenty five (25) accessions of Lucerne (Medicago sp.) collected from Leh valley of trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir) were analyzed using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results of this study revealed that the level of genetic variation in the collected Medicago ecotypes were relatively high (P=96.54%, I=0.430, Ht=0.285). RAPD fingerprinting detected more polymorphic loci (97.96%) than ISSR fingerprinting (95.12%). Clustering of genotypes within groups was not similar when RAPD and ISSR derived dendrogram were compared, whereas the pattern of clustering of the genotypes remained more or less the same in RAPD and combined data of RAPD + ISSR. The mean coefficient of differentiation (Gst) was 0.0584 indicating 30.23% of the genetic diversity within the populations. The overall value of mean estimated number of gene flow (Nm = 8.0682) revealed large gene exchanges among populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the distribution of genetic diversity was 49% among populations and 51% within populations. The plant is capable of reproducing by self-sowing, thus can influence population genetic structure. The pronounced genetic variation tells us that Medicago species is a proper plant for genetic research and that there is great potential of breeding this species for improved forage varieties. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Biswas A.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Ahmed M.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Singh S.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The present study was carried out on broilers to study the effect of oral administration of vitamin E and selenium (E-care Se) on growth performance, haematological and biochemical parameters for a period of 42 days (6 weeks). A total of 90 oneday- old broiler chicks were divided into three equal groups: T1, T2 and T3. Group T1 was maintained as control and was fed only with the basal diet throughout the experimental period. Two experimental diets, T2 and T3, were formulated to contain an additional 100 g (150 IU vitamin E/kg+0.5 mg Se/kg) and 200 g (300 IU vitamin E/kg+1.0 mg Se/kg) of E-care Se which was the source of vitamin E and selenium. Body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in antioxidant-treated groups compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in feed conversion ratio (FCR). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for haematological (TEC, Hb, PCV and ESR) and biochemical (GOT and GPT) study. Body weight was increased significantly in both treated groups compared with the control group and highest body weights were recorded in group T2. TEC, PCV and Hb content increased significantly (p<0.01) in the treated groups as compared to the control group, but ESR, GOT and GPT values decreased significantly (p<0.01) in both treated groups as compared to the control group. The result reveals that use of antioxidants (vitamin E and selenium) is an effective way of getting the best result in terms of body weight gain and haemato-biochemical profiles in broiler birds at high altitude.


Jain V.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | Baitharu I.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | Barhwal K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Prasad D.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | And 2 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) induced neurodegen-eration has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, decreased growth factors, apoptosis, etc. Though enriched environment (EE) has been known to have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders, its effect on HH mediated neurodegeneration remains to be studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of EE on HH induced neurodegeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in enriched and standard conditions during exposure to HH (7 days) equivalent to an altitude of 25,000 ft. The effect of EE on oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, and corticosterone level in hippocampus was investigated. EE during exposure to HH was found to decrease neurodegeneration as evident from decreased caspase 3 expression and LDH leakage. However, no significant changes were observed in ROS, MDA, and antiox-idant status of hippocampus. HH elevates corticosterone level and affected the diurnal corticoid rhythm which may contribute to neurodegeneration, whereas EE ameliorate this effect. Because of the association of neurotrophins and stress and/or corticosterone the BDNF and NGF levels were also examined and it was found that HH decreases their level but concurrent exposure to EE maintains their level. Moreover, inhibition of Tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) with K252a nullifies the protective effect of EE, whereas Trk activation with agonist, amitriptyline showed protective effect similar to EE. Taken together, we conclude that EE has a potential to ameliorate HH mediated neuronal degeneration which may act through antioxidant independent pathway by modulation of neurotrophins. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Acharya S.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Singh N.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Maurya S.B.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Srivastava B.R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Present study was undertaken to determine loss of soil organic carbon, major and micronutrient status of cold desert Ladakh region as a result of unprecedented cloudburst in August 2010. Heavy rainfall (250 mm) within an hour leading to flash floods resulted in severe loss of standing crops spreading over 1400 ha of agriculture land besides destruction of human, animal lives, infrastructures. In most of the affected areas, top fertile soil completely washed away resulting in severe depletion of various major and micro nutrients essential for good soil health. Soil pH was recorded 8.66 and organic carbon severely depleted from 1.09% to only 0.24% making the soil very loose and poor in WHC. N, P and K (115.4, 1.0 and 103.4 kg/ha respectively) and micronutrient contents were also severely reduced as compared to original soil. These losses have severe long-term effects on crop productivity and economy of the region. Some ameliorative measures have also been mentioned for improving soil health and sustainable crop production.


PubMed | Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences and Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
Type: | Journal: The journal of physiological sciences : JPS | Year: 2017

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has a role in transpiration in patho-physiological signaling in skeletal muscles. The present study evaluated the pre-conditioning efficacy of S1P in facilitating differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts under a normoxic/hypoxic cell culture environment. Under normoxia, exogenous S1P significantly promoted C2C12 differentiation as evident from morphometric descriptors and differentiation markers of the mature myotubes, but it could facilitate only partial recovery from hypoxia-induced compromised differentiation. Pretreatment of S1P optimized the myokine secretion, intracellular calcium release and energy generation by boosting the aerobic/anaerobic metabolism and mitochondrial mass. In the hypoxia-exposed cells, there was derangement of the S1PR

Loading Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR collaborators
Loading Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR collaborators