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Bharti V.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Srivastava R.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

We examined the effects of fluoride intoxication on certain blood plasma biochemical indices in rats. Fortyeight adult female Wistar rats weighing 123-142 g were divided into eight groups: two control groups (0 and 28 days) and six experimental groups, namely sham-injected animals (vehicle), injected with pineal proteins (PP) and melatonin (Mel), intoxicated with fluoride (F), and also F+PP and F+Mel groups. Fluoride (150 ppm, per os administration with drinking water), melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.), and PP (100 μg/kg, i.p.) were administered daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of experiments to estimate plasma [Na +] and [K +], alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and levels of glucose and proteins in different animal groups. The plasma [K +] and [Na +], and ALP activity were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in F-treated animals, as compared with others. Administration of PP and Mel in F-treated rats caused significant (P < < 0.05) reduction of [Na +], [K +], and ALP levels. Interestingly, PP and Mel administrations resulted in noticeable (P < 0.05) increases in the plasma glucose level in F-intoxicated animals, as compared to other groups. These findings convincingly indicate that PP and Mel exert ameliorative effects on fluoride-induced adverse changes in certain biochemical parameters in rats. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Jain V.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | Baitharu I.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | Barhwal K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Prasad D.,Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied science DIPAS | And 2 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) induced neurodegen-eration has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, decreased growth factors, apoptosis, etc. Though enriched environment (EE) has been known to have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders, its effect on HH mediated neurodegeneration remains to be studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of EE on HH induced neurodegeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in enriched and standard conditions during exposure to HH (7 days) equivalent to an altitude of 25,000 ft. The effect of EE on oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, and corticosterone level in hippocampus was investigated. EE during exposure to HH was found to decrease neurodegeneration as evident from decreased caspase 3 expression and LDH leakage. However, no significant changes were observed in ROS, MDA, and antiox-idant status of hippocampus. HH elevates corticosterone level and affected the diurnal corticoid rhythm which may contribute to neurodegeneration, whereas EE ameliorate this effect. Because of the association of neurotrophins and stress and/or corticosterone the BDNF and NGF levels were also examined and it was found that HH decreases their level but concurrent exposure to EE maintains their level. Moreover, inhibition of Tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) with K252a nullifies the protective effect of EE, whereas Trk activation with agonist, amitriptyline showed protective effect similar to EE. Taken together, we conclude that EE has a potential to ameliorate HH mediated neuronal degeneration which may act through antioxidant independent pathway by modulation of neurotrophins. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bharti V.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bharti V.K.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Srivastava R.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kumar H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123-143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 μg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly P < 0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P < 0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. © 2014 Vijay K. Bharti et al.

Xavier J.R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Kumar J.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR | Bihari R.,Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIHAR
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Twenty five (25) accessions of Lucerne (Medicago sp.) collected from Leh valley of trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir) were analyzed using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results of this study revealed that the level of genetic variation in the collected Medicago ecotypes were relatively high (P=96.54%, I=0.430, Ht=0.285). RAPD fingerprinting detected more polymorphic loci (97.96%) than ISSR fingerprinting (95.12%). Clustering of genotypes within groups was not similar when RAPD and ISSR derived dendrogram were compared, whereas the pattern of clustering of the genotypes remained more or less the same in RAPD and combined data of RAPD + ISSR. The mean coefficient of differentiation (Gst) was 0.0584 indicating 30.23% of the genetic diversity within the populations. The overall value of mean estimated number of gene flow (Nm = 8.0682) revealed large gene exchanges among populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the distribution of genetic diversity was 49% among populations and 51% within populations. The plant is capable of reproducing by self-sowing, thus can influence population genetic structure. The pronounced genetic variation tells us that Medicago species is a proper plant for genetic research and that there is great potential of breeding this species for improved forage varieties. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Ali R.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | Jaimini A.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | Nishad D.K.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | Mittal G.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objectives: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) based herbal antioxidant supplement (HAOS). Materials and Methods: In vivo toxicity studies were performed in male balb 'C' mice by oral administration. Acute toxicity study was done at doses ranging from 2000 to 10 000 mg/kg while in subacute studies, HAOS was given at doses of 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for any toxic sign and symptoms periodically. At completion of study animals were sacrificed; their hematological, biochemical parameters were analyzed and histopathology of vital organs was done. In vivo efficacy studies in human volunteers were done and the levels of vitamin A and Vitamin C in blood samples were analyzed in comparison to a similar commercially available formulation. Results: No mortality and any clinical signs of toxicity were found in HAOS administered group of animals. There were no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis of vital organs showed normal architecture in all the HAOS administered groups. Human studies showed an increase of 32% and 172% in Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels respectively in term of bioavailability. Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

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